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National Association of State Student Grant Aid Programs. (2019). Annual survey report on state-sponsored student financial aid. https://www.nassgapsurvey.com/survey_reports/2017-2018-49th.pdf

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Trostel, P.A., & Ronca, J.M. (2009). A simple unifying measure of state support for postsecondary education. Research in Higher Education, 50 (3), 215-247.

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With only 3,518 FTE enrolled students in Washington, D.C., per-student funding fluctuates more dramatically with any increases or decreases in state support. The 26.3 percent per-FTE increase corresponds to an additional $9.2 million in tax appropriations in fiscal 2019.

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N.C. Const. art. IX § 9

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A.Z. Cost. art. XI § 6

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SHEEO calculates all U.S. level metrics using a weighted average and standard deviation.

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Education appropriations per FTE are adjusted for enrollment mix and cost of living differences across states.

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It is important to note that the U.S. totals are not averages of state averages. For example, “U.S. total education appropriations per FTE” is the sum of all education appropriations divided by the sum of all net FTE across the 50 states. It is not the average of each of the 50 states’ individual per-FTE calculations.

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Washington, D.C., was not able to provide data on financial aid for students attending in-district public institutions.

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Arizona Joint Budget Committee. (2018). Arizona community colleges general fund appropriations: FY 2010 through FY 2019. https://www.azleg.gov/jlbc/accgfapp.pdf

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Delaney, J., & Doyle, W. (2011). State spending on higher education: Testing the balance wheel over time. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4). http://www.jstor.org/stable/23018116

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Unlike the SHEF data, NASBO expenditures exclude employer contribution to pensions and health benefits.

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National Association of State Budget Officers. (2019). State expenditure report: Fiscal years 2017-2019. NASBO. https://www.nasbo.org/reports-data/state-expenditure-report