Sources and Uses of Funding


National Association of State Budget Officers. (2019). State expenditure report: Fiscal years 2017-2019. NASBO.


Unlike the SHEF data, NASBO expenditures exclude employer contribution to pensions and health benefits.


Delaney, J., & Doyle, W. (2011). State spending on higher education: Testing the balance wheel over time. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4).


Arizona Joint Budget Committee. (2018). Arizona community colleges general fund appropriations: FY 2010 through FY 2019.


Washington, D.C., was not able to provide data on financial aid for students attending in-district public institutions.

Distribution of Revenue


It is important to note that the U.S. totals are not averages of state averages. For example, “U.S. total education appropriations per FTE” is the sum of all education appropriations divided by the sum of all net FTE across the 50 states. It is not the average of each of the 50 states’ individual per-FTE calculations.