Sources and Uses of Funding
National Association of State Budget Officers. (2019). State expenditure report: Fiscal years 2017-2019. NASBO. https://www.nasbo.org/reports-data/state-expenditure-report
Unlike the SHEF data, NASBO expenditures exclude employer contribution to pensions and health benefits.
Delaney, J., & Doyle, W. (2011). State spending on higher education: Testing the balance wheel over time. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4). http://www.jstor.org/stable/23018116
Arizona Joint Budget Committee. (2018). Arizona community colleges general fund appropriations: FY 2010 through FY 2019. https://www.azleg.gov/jlbc/accgfapp.pdf
Washington, D.C., was not able to provide data on financial aid for students attending in-district public institutions.
W.A. Legis. S.B. 5954. 3rd Special Session 2015. http://lawfilesext.leg.wa.gov/biennium/2015-16/Pdf/Bills/Session%20Laws/Senate/5954-S.SL.pdf?q=20200225085531
Distribution of Revenue
It is important to note that the U.S. totals are not averages of state averages. For example, “U.S. total education appropriations per FTE” is the sum of all education appropriations divided by the sum of all net FTE across the 50 states. It is not the average of each of the 50 states’ individual per-FTE calculations.
State and National Trends
With only 3,518 FTE enrolled students in Washington, D.C., per-student funding fluctuates more dramatically with any increases or decreases in state support. The 26.3 percent per-FTE increase corresponds to an additional $9.2 million in tax appropriations in fiscal 2019.
State Effort and Capacity
Education appropriations per FTE are adjusted for enrollment mix and cost of living differences across states.
SHEEO calculates all U.S. level metrics using a weighted average and standard deviation.
Trostel, P.A., & Ronca, J.M. (2009). A simple unifying measure of state support for postsecondary education. Research in Higher Education, 50 (3), 215-247.
A.Z. Cost. art. XI § 6
N.C. Const. art. IX § 9
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