Student Enrollment

Map 3.1

Net Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment, FY 2023

Full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students. SHEF includes enrollment for all degree-seeking undergraduate and graduate students at public institutions. After years of steady enrollment increases since the SHEF data collection began, the number of FTE students enrolled in public institutions slowly declined, both nationally and across states, over the last decade. However, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, FTE enrollment has declined at unprecedented rates in recent years. 18 18National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. (2023). Fall 2023 enrollment (as of September 2023). nscresearchcenter.org/stay-informed/ VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES  

Historically, enrollment has increased in each decade. Starting in 2009, enrollment increased rapidly during and immediately following the Great Recession, having peaked at just over 11.6 million students in 2011.

Since 2011, FTE enrollment has declined for 12 straight years to 10.2 million in 2023. Between 2015 and 2020, these declines were less than 1.0% annually. In 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a year-over-year decline of 3.3% in FTE enrollment, the largest decline since the start of the SHEF dataset in 1980. FTE enrollment continued to decline in 2022 (2.4%), and again in 2023 (0.5%). As a result, FTE enrollment in public institutions in 2023 was down 12.1% from the peak in 2011.

1. State Comparisons

Figure 3.1 shows net FTE enrollment for each state in fiscal year 2023. Table 3.1 provides additional detail on how enrollment has changed over time in each state.

  • Across the states, FTE enrollment ranged from roughly 2,894 students in Washington, D.C., and 12,075 in Alaska to 1.5 million students in California. One-fourth of all students attending a U.S. public institution enrolled in either California or Texas, with both states exceeding one million FTE students.
  • Enrollment declined in 25 states between 2022 and 2023. These declines ranged from 0.1% in Nebraska (representing only 107 FTE students) to 5.3% in Ohio (19,464 FTE students)
  • Enrollment increased in 25 states and Washington, D.C. Increases ranged from 0.01% (or 27 FTE students) in Georgia to 18.5% (or 13,924 FTE students) in Connecticut. 
  • Enrollment has declined in 43 states and Washington D.C., since 2013, but in only one state compared to the start of the SHEF dataset; FTE enrollment in Illinois has declined 18.6% since 1980.

Figure 3.1

Public Higher Education Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Full-time equivalent enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students.
  2. Fiscal year 2023 FTE enrollment is estimated for Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.1

Public Higher Education Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment by State, FY 1980-2023

1980 2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2018 % Change Since 2013 % Change Since 2001 % Change Since 1980
Alabama 138,620 165,833 197,110 202,506 191,445 197,404 3.1% -2.5% 0.1% 19.0% 42.4%
Alaska 10,530 16,079 21,151 17,555 12,440 12,075 -2.9% -31.2% -42.9% -24.9% 14.7%
Arizona 120,148 194,629 270,644 290,816 309,160 304,993 -1.3% 4.9% 12.7% 56.7% 153.8%
Arkansas 53,130 87,337 124,157 114,872 102,567 103,606 1.0% -9.8% -16.6% 18.6% 95.0%
California 979,142 1,322,308 1,500,851 1,606,728 1,582,288 1,547,861 -2.2% -3.7% 3.1% 17.1% 58.1%
Colorado 113,281 141,492 188,405 183,875 175,533 175,969 0.2% -4.3% -6.6% 24.4% 55.3%
Connecticut 58,909 60,976 87,810 86,008 75,381 89,305 18.5% 3.8% 1.7% 46.5% 51.6%
Delaware 20,664 28,944 34,715 36,073 33,946 36,134 6.4% 0.2% 4.1% 24.8% 74.9%
Florida 287,388 420,957 619,179 602,623 567,038 560,982 -1.1% -6.9% -9.4% 33.3% 95.2%
Georgia 157,155 234,998 355,866 351,519 348,450 348,477 0.0% -0.9% -2.1% 48.3% 121.7%
Hawaii 30,465 31,810 41,094 36,030 32,620 31,880 -2.3% -11.5% -22.4% 0.2% 4.6%
Idaho 26,647 39,495 57,837 53,570 53,976 54,261 0.5% 1.3% -6.2% 37.4% 103.6%
Illinois 342,097 323,876 373,403 314,565 282,677 278,539 -1.5% -11.5% -25.4% -14.0% -18.6%
Indiana 142,061 193,130 256,331 247,678 235,412 238,175 1.2% -3.8% -7.1% 23.3% 67.7%
Iowa 84,210 105,545 129,669 131,609 115,604 115,113 -0.4% -12.5% -11.2% 9.1% 36.7%
Kansas 87,216 100,476 140,182 133,815 119,978 118,924 -0.9% -11.1% -15.2% 18.4% 36.4%
Kentucky 89,389 119,500 155,479 144,509 133,629 135,356 1.3% -6.3% -12.9% 13.3% 51.4%
Louisiana 106,686 168,121 174,552 161,670 158,195 159,036 0.5% -1.6% -8.9% -5.4% 49.1%
Maine 26,250 29,287 37,342 33,945 32,111 32,293 0.6% -4.9% -13.5% 10.3% 23.0%
Maryland 133,228 175,085 238,814 231,761 216,383 215,977 -0.2% -6.8% -9.6% 23.4% 62.1%
Massachusetts 122,952 128,404 171,974 163,673 142,397 139,082 -2.3% -15.0% -19.1% 8.3% 13.1%
Michigan 318,166 333,584 411,770 372,155 332,067 324,705 -2.2% -12.8% -21.1% -2.7% 2.1%
Minnesota 149,418 167,238 210,332 187,705 162,546 159,023 -2.2% -15.3% -24.4% -4.9% 6.4%
Mississippi 85,292 102,490 132,114 130,279 119,101 117,296 -1.5% -10.0% -11.2% 14.4% 37.5%
Missouri 120,468 156,588 196,659 186,862 136,953 143,401 4.7% -23.3% -27.1% -8.4% 19.0%
Montana 25,452 33,660 40,169 37,374 33,685 33,811 0.4% -9.5% -15.8% 0.4% 32.8%
Nebraska 56,360 65,725 81,270 76,792 71,335 71,228 -0.1% -7.2% -12.4% 8.4% 26.4%
Nevada 19,367 48,107 65,917 76,109 74,078 73,956 -0.2% -2.8% 12.2% 53.7% 281.9%
New Hampshire 19,415 26,506 39,224 37,643 30,874 30,009 -2.8% -20.3% -23.5% 13.2% 54.6%
New Jersey 171,390 178,671 276,052 267,251 241,106 242,280 0.5% -9.3% -12.2% 35.6% 41.4%
New Mexico 48,268 66,847 101,239 83,747 70,189 73,111 4.2% -12.7% -27.8% 9.4% 51.5%
New York 418,679 449,959 571,693 547,033 455,844 445,675 -2.2% -18.5% -22.0% -1.0% 6.4%
North Carolina 165,642 266,217 410,622 392,138 390,900 393,774 0.7% 0.4% -4.1% 47.9% 137.7%
North Dakota 26,735 31,922 37,122 34,969 31,822 32,160 1.1% -8.0% -13.4% 0.7% 20.3%
Ohio 291,000 337,379 400,796 387,109 368,517 349,053 -5.3% -9.8% -12.9% 3.5% 19.9%
Oklahoma 96,476 121,111 144,138 131,083 120,966 119,478 -1.2% -8.9% -17.1% -1.3% 23.8%
Oregon 96,946 111,006 160,939 148,139 122,910 123,725 0.7% -16.5% -23.1% 11.5% 27.6%
Pennsylvania 243,296 288,334 364,468 346,930 298,847 291,659 -2.4% -15.9% -20.0% 1.2% 19.9%
Rhode Island 23,237 25,622 33,042 32,270 28,741 28,491 -0.9% -11.7% -13.8% 11.2% 22.6%
South Carolina 95,600 132,404 178,240 164,402 166,231 170,214 2.4% 3.5% -4.5% 28.6% 78.0%
South Dakota 18,623 22,064 32,945 32,899 30,645 30,736 0.3% -6.6% -6.7% 39.3% 65.0%
Tennessee 124,022 159,838 188,759 182,845 173,240 175,744 1.4% -3.9% -6.9% 10.0% 41.7%
Texas 466,900 667,534 1,019,173 1,044,376 993,823 1,006,957 1.3% -3.6% -1.2% 50.8% 115.7%
Utah 47,061 91,953 123,851 125,550 128,774 129,100 0.3% 2.8% 4.2% 40.4% 174.3%
Vermont 13,656 15,914 21,279 20,583 19,633 19,290 -1.7% -6.3% -9.3% 21.2% 41.3%
Virginia 175,197 236,014 320,481 303,300 288,995 289,778 0.3% -4.5% -9.6% 22.8% 65.4%
Washington 163,866 204,663 248,273 237,289 207,919 201,544 -3.1% -15.1% -18.8% -1.5% 23.0%
West Virginia 53,331 62,902 78,458 68,746 58,865 57,662 -2.0% -16.1% -26.5% -8.3% 8.1%
Wisconsin 174,163 196,523 229,463 211,610 194,947 195,141 0.1% -7.8% -15.0% -0.7% 12.0%
Wyoming 14,048 20,198 25,669 22,699 20,991 20,867 -0.6% -8.1% -18.7% 3.3% 48.5%
D.C. N/A N/A 3,945 3,568 2,758 2,894 4.9% -18.9% -26.6% N/A N/A
U.S. 6,852,242 8,709,255 11,320,722 11,035,287 10,295,774 10,245,310 -0.5% -7.2% -9.5% 17.6% 49.5%
Notes:
  1. Full-time equivalent enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  3. The years 1980 and 2001 are included in this table because they are the starting points of the historical SHEF dataset and modern SHEF data collection, respectively.
  4. In fiscal year 2023, FTE enrollment is estimated for Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. Texas updated the methodology to capture FTE enrollment starting in 2017. Years prior to 2017 do not reflect this new methodology, which may affect some year-to-year comparisons.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

Table 3.1A presents data on net FTE enrollment for the public two-year and four-year sectors separately. In 2023, there were 3.87 million FTE enrolled students at two-year institutions. Alaska and Washington, D.C., have no public two-year institutions. Two-year enrollment across all other states ranged from 2,609 FTE in Vermont to 892,064 FTE in California. Twenty-three percent of students attending a U.S. public two-year institution in 2023 attended a California community college.

  • From 2022 to 2023, two-year enrollment declined in 23 states. Enrollment declines ranged from 10.9% (or 12,217 FTE students) in Ohio to 0.06% (or 13 FTE students) in Connecticut.
  • Two-year FTE enrollment increased in 26 states from 2022 to 2023. Enrollment increases ranged from 0.3% (or 139 FTE students) in Iowa to 19.1% (or 1,580 FTE students) in Maine. 

There were 6.38 million FTE enrolled students at four-year institutions in 2023, about 1.6 times the number of two-year students. Enrollment at four-year institutions ranged from 2,894 in Washington D.C., and 9,564 in Wyoming to 655,797 in California. Notably, California represented one-tenth of all four-year public enrollment in 2023.

  • From 2022 to 2023, four-year FTE enrollment declined in 34 states. Enrollment declines ranged from 5.9% (or 1,398 FTE students) in Maine to 0.03% (or 13 FTE students) in Nevada.
  • Four-year FTE enrollment increased in 16 states and Washington, D.C., from 2022 to 2023. Enrollment increases ranged from 0.1% (or 21 FTE students) in South Dakota to 25.7% (13,937 FTE students) in Connecticut.

In 2023, 17 states had year-over-year enrollment declines in both sectors while 10 had enrollment increases across both sectors. The four-year sector generally had larger enrollment declines across states — in 29 states, enrollment took a larger hit in the four-year sector than in the two-year sector from 2022 to 2023.

Figure 3.1A shows that states enroll different proportions of students across sectors. Overall, 37.7% of public FTE students attended a two-year institution in the United States — a decline of 2.2 percentage points from 2019. The percentage of FTE at two-year institutions varied from only 13.5% in Vermont to 57.6% in California. Only California, Washington, and Wyoming had more FTE students enrolled in the two-year sector than in the four-year sector.

Figure 3.1A

Percentage of Public Higher Education Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment at Two-Year Institutions by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Full-time equivalent enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students.
  2. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level FTE enrollment is estimated for Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

enrollmentMeasurement Note: Sector Enrollment Mix

States vary in the proportion of enrollment attending two-year and four-year public institutions. In addition, as the following sections will show, the two-year and four-year public sectors have very different revenue structures and total revenues. These varying enrollment proportions and different revenue structures make state-level data more difficult to compare. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) adjustment used throughout the state-level metrics in this report attempts to correct for this variation in FTE enrollment. Sector-level data are not adjusted for EMI (and do not need to be).

Table 3.1A

Public Higher Education Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023

Two-Year FTE Four-Year FTE
2019 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019
Alabama 59,288 52,783 55,842 5.8% -5.8% 143,485 138,662 141,562 2.1% -1.3%
Alaska 0 0 0 N/A N/A 16,721 12,440 12,075 -2.9% -27.8%
Arizona 110,557 90,402 91,573 1.3% -17.2% 182,299 218,758 213,420 -2.4% 17.1%
Arkansas 30,934 26,722 26,800 0.3% -13.4% 82,311 75,845 76,805 1.3% -6.7%
California 934,456 913,369 892,064 -2.3% -4.5% 672,687 668,919 655,797 -2.0% -2.5%
Colorado 56,000 55,170 56,773 2.9% 1.4% 127,744 120,363 119,196 -1.0% -6.7%
Connecticut 26,419 21,142 21,129 -0.1% -20.0% 57,374 54,239 68,176 25.7% 18.8%
Delaware 8,886 7,486 7,251 -3.1% -18.4% 27,524 26,460 28,883 9.2% 4.9%
Florida 315,763 269,699 266,768 -1.1% -15.5% 293,179 297,339 294,214 -1.1% 0.4%
Georgia 86,540 74,285 75,813 2.1% -12.4% 269,808 274,165 272,663 -0.5% 1.1%
Hawaii 14,820 12,126 11,618 -4.2% -21.6% 20,434 20,494 20,262 -1.1% -0.8%
Idaho 15,992 14,914 14,869 -0.3% -7.0% 38,429 39,063 39,392 0.8% 2.5%
Illinois 140,713 118,087 114,785 -2.8% -18.4% 166,254 164,590 163,755 -0.5% -1.5%
Indiana 63,913 58,967 62,656 6.3% -2.0% 182,388 176,445 175,519 -0.5% -3.8%
Iowa 57,239 50,859 50,998 0.3% -10.9% 72,148 64,745 64,115 -1.0% -11.1%
Kansas 52,895 46,029 45,763 -0.6% -13.5% 79,358 73,949 73,161 -1.1% -7.8%
Kentucky 43,446 39,127 40,552 3.6% -6.7% 98,557 94,502 94,804 0.3% -3.8%
Louisiana 43,091 37,533 40,141 6.9% -6.8% 120,841 120,662 118,895 -1.5% -1.6%
Maine 9,773 8,292 9,872 19.1% 1.0% 24,174 23,819 22,421 -5.9% -7.3%
Maryland 89,990 71,365 72,459 1.5% -19.5% 139,253 145,018 143,518 -1.0% 3.1%
Massachusetts 49,799 38,394 36,983 -3.7% -25.7% 110,528 104,003 102,099 -1.8% -7.6%
Michigan 116,340 99,394 96,575 -2.8% -17.0% 249,978 232,673 228,130 -2.0% -8.7%
Minnesota 76,219 64,710 63,999 -1.1% -16.0% 108,148 97,835 95,024 -2.9% -12.1%
Mississippi 58,299 51,174 50,385 -1.5% -13.6% 71,200 67,927 66,911 -1.5% -6.0%
Missouri 59,765 40,516 42,177 4.1% -29.4% 122,734 96,437 101,224 5.0% -17.5%
Montana 6,678 5,936 6,114 3.0% -8.4% 29,697 27,749 27,696 -0.2% -6.7%
Nebraska 26,142 22,531 23,131 2.7% -11.5% 49,798 48,804 48,097 -1.4% -3.4%
Nevada 29,026 26,922 26,813 -0.4% -7.6% 47,398 47,156 47,143 0.0% -0.5%
New Hampshire 9,853 7,515 7,300 -2.9% -25.9% 26,500 23,359 22,709 -2.8% -14.3%
New Jersey 99,904 82,173 83,752 1.9% -16.2% 165,182 158,933 158,528 -0.3% -4.0%
New Mexico 37,798 29,992 30,910 3.1% -18.2% 39,242 40,197 42,201 5.0% 7.5%
New York 210,891 155,063 152,926 -1.4% -27.5% 327,088 300,781 292,749 -2.7% -10.5%
North Carolina 179,659 172,214 178,618 3.7% -0.6% 214,263 218,686 215,156 -1.6% 0.4%
North Dakota 7,028 6,524 6,815 4.5% -3.0% 26,753 25,298 25,345 0.2% -5.3%
Ohio 99,164 111,675 99,458 -10.9% 0.3% 287,287 256,842 249,596 -2.8% -13.1%
Oklahoma 40,585 36,006 35,114 -2.5% -13.5% 88,260 84,960 84,364 -0.7% -4.4%
Oregon 60,770 46,129 45,885 -0.5% -24.5% 83,519 76,781 77,840 1.4% -6.8%
Pennsylvania 79,979 62,651 61,589 -1.7% -23.0% 251,685 236,196 230,070 -2.6% -8.6%
Rhode Island 9,333 7,224 7,356 1.8% -21.2% 22,645 21,517 21,135 -1.8% -6.7%
South Carolina 57,624 55,122 58,265 5.7% 1.1% 109,116 111,109 111,949 0.8% 2.6%
South Dakota 5,810 5,829 5,899 1.2% 1.5% 27,006 24,816 24,837 0.1% -8.0%
Tennessee 72,783 62,292 60,201 -3.4% -17.3% 111,635 110,948 115,543 4.1% 3.5%
Texas 477,746 419,369 430,089 2.6% -10.0% 571,287 574,454 576,868 0.4% 1.0%
Utah 25,832 24,470 24,566 0.4% -4.9% 102,270 104,304 104,534 0.2% 2.2%
Vermont 2,652 2,647 2,609 -1.4% -1.6% 17,806 16,986 16,681 -1.8% -6.3%
Virginia 100,141 87,994 87,023 -1.1% -13.1% 201,878 201,002 202,755 0.9% 0.4%
Washington 123,981 105,800 104,381 -1.3% -15.8% 112,000 102,119 97,163 -4.9% -13.2%
West Virginia 11,076 8,718 8,807 1.0% -20.5% 55,501 50,147 48,855 -2.6% -12.0%
Wisconsin 72,054 58,595 60,011 2.4% -16.7% 137,600 136,351 135,130 -0.9% -1.8%
Wyoming 11,214 11,241 11,303 0.6% 0.8% 10,980 9,750 9,564 -1.9% -12.9%
D.C. 0 0 0 N/A N/A 3,518 2,758 2,894 4.9% -17.7%
U.S. 4,378,860 3,877,177 3,866,780 -0.3% -11.7% 6,593,952 6,418,597 6,378,529 -0.6% -3.3%
Notes:
  1. Full-time equivalent enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level FTE enrollment is estimated for Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Education Appropriations

Map 3.2

Education Appropriations per FTE, FY 2023

Education appropriations measure state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and exclude appropriations for independent institutions, financial aid for students attending independent or out-of-state institutions, research, hospitals, and medical education. State-level education appropriations include state higher education agency allocations and all federal stimulus funding allocated to public institutions, while sector-level education appropriations exclude agency funding and include only the federal stimulus funding allocated to two-year or four-year public operating. In a handful of states, some uncategorizable state support and uncategorizable financial aid are not allocated to either sector. 

Historically, public higher education was primarily funded by the states. For the last four decades, funding has decreased during poor economic times and increased as the economy improved. Education appropriations reached an all-time low in 2012 following the cumulative effects of the 2001 and 2008 recessions. However, during and following the 2020 recession, federal stimulus funding protected education appropriation levels in many states, reversing the trend of large cuts to education appropriations in years following economic recessions. 19 19Federal stimulus funds protected education appropriations in two ways: States received federal stimulus funding for other priority budget areas, reducing the need to redirect higher education funds toward those areas, and states received targeted federal stimulus funding directly to higher education. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Fiscal year 2023 marks the 11th straight year of per-FTE increases in education appropriations. Inflation-adjusted education appropriations per FTE increased 3.7% from 2022 to 2023, reaching $11,040 (Table 3.2). For the second time since the Great Recession, education appropriations per FTE exceeded 2008 levels, both including and excluding federal stimulus (6.7% and 5.2% higher, respectively). However, 2023 education appropriations per FTE remained below 2001 levels, another pre-recession high point, both when including (3.0%) and excluding (4.4%) federal stimulus.

1. State Comparisons

States vary widely in their per-student funding for higher education. Education appropriations per FTE in 2023 ranged from $3,990 in New Hampshire to $22,590 in Illinois 20 20Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES and $25,834 in Washington, D.C. (Figure 3.2). 

  • Despite national-level increases, education appropriations per FTE declined in 20 states and Washington, D.C., from 2022 to 2023. Decreases ranged from 18.3% (or $1,530 per FTE) in Delaware to 0.3% (or $31 per FTE) in Texas. 
  • Education appropriations per FTE increased in 30 states from 2022 to 2023. Increases ranged from 0.4% (or $48 per FTE) in North Carolina to 53.6% (or $5,077 per FTE) in Alabama. 21 21The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is due to a one-time supplemental appropriation.   VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Although nationally, education appropriations have recovered to 2008 levels, half of all states continue funding higher education at a lower level than prior to the Great Recession. Twenty-five states have not yet recovered from the 2008 Great Recession (meaning their education appropriations per FTE in 2023 remain below 2008 levels). Arizona (34.6% below), Louisiana (30.6% below), and Nevada (30.2% below) are furthest from recovery. Additionally, in 32 states, education appropriations per FTE remain below the level seen in 2001 prior to the tech bust.

Federal stimulus funding has continued to have an impact on state funding to higher education, including the above figures. On average, states allocated $163 per FTE in federal stimulus funding to public higher education. In 2023, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawai`i, Idaho, New Mexico, and Vermont allocated more than $1,000 per FTE in federal stimulus funding to public higher education. After excluding federal stimulus funding from all years in which it was allocated (2009-2012 and 2020-2023):

  • Education appropriations per FTE declined in 14 states and Washington, D.C., from 2022 to 2023. Decreases ranged from 17.4% (or $2,031 per FTE) in Missouri to 0.9% (or $110 per FTE) in Nebraska. 
  • In 2023, education appropriations per student increased in 36 states. Increases ranged from 0.02% (or $3 per FTE) in Wyoming to 53.6% (or $5,077 per FTE) in Alabama. 22 22The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is due to a one-time supplemental appropriation. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES  
  • Although U.S. average education appropriations per FTE are higher than prior to the 2008 recession, 25 states have not yet recovered. Additionally, 33 have not yet recovered from the 2001 recession.

Figure 3.2

Public Higher Education Appropriations per FTE by State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)


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Notes:
  1. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Education appropriations include federal stimulus funding.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  3. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  4. Constant 2023 dollars adjusted by the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA).
  5. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Enrollment Mix Index (EMI).
  6. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Cost of Living Index (COLI). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.2

Public Higher Education Appropriations per FTE by State, FY 1980-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

1980 2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2018 % Change Since 2013 % Change Since 2001 % Change Since 1980
Alabama $8,155 $9,585 $7,353 $7,697 $9,472 $14,549 53.6% 89.0% 97.9% 51.8% 78.4%
Alaska $25,429 $15,688 $17,474 $17,222 $19,185 $20,160 5.1% 17.1% 15.4% 28.5% -20.7%
Arizona $8,885 $10,052 $6,938 $6,454 $6,468 $7,103 9.8% 10.1% 2.4% -29.3% -20.1%
Arkansas $10,544 $11,258 $9,879 $9,200 $10,358 $9,859 -4.8% 7.2% -0.2% -12.4% -6.5%
California $9,233 $10,123 $7,565 $9,534 $11,408 $11,801 3.4% 23.8% 56.0% 16.6% 27.8%
Colorado $6,183 $7,477 $3,754 $4,990 $7,057 $6,603 -6.4% 32.3% 75.9% -11.7% 6.8%
Connecticut $9,001 $17,632 $11,285 $10,547 $15,567 $14,862 -4.5% 40.9% 31.7% -15.7% 65.1%
Delaware $9,064 $10,473 $7,033 $6,865 $8,347 $6,816 -18.3% -0.7% -3.1% -34.9% -24.8%
Florida $7,630 $11,552 $6,008 $8,802 $9,749 $10,029 2.9% 13.9% 66.9% -13.2% 31.4%
Georgia $10,602 $16,378 $9,274 $11,388 $14,359 $13,911 -3.1% 22.2% 50.0% -15.1% 31.2%
Hawaii $10,323 $10,323 $9,591 $13,795 $14,857 $16,672 12.2% 20.9% 73.8% 61.5% 61.5%
Idaho $13,766 $14,639 $8,515 $10,964 $11,119 $12,655 13.8% 15.4% 48.6% -13.6% -8.1%
Illinois $10,367 $15,691 $17,364 $18,343 $23,234 $22,590 -2.8% 23.2% 30.1% 44.0% 117.9%
Indiana $10,825 $10,727 $7,098 $7,428 $7,584 $7,201 -5.0% -3.1% 1.4% -32.9% -33.5%
Iowa $11,567 $12,649 $7,306 $6,440 $7,128 $6,981 -2.1% 8.4% -4.5% -44.8% -39.7%
Kansas $10,814 $12,318 $7,929 $7,680 $9,272 $9,859 6.3% 28.4% 24.3% -20.0% -8.8%
Kentucky $11,700 $14,205 $9,004 $8,801 $9,513 $10,236 7.6% 16.3% 13.7% -27.9% -12.5%
Louisiana $10,265 $9,063 $7,007 $6,825 $7,467 $7,628 2.2% 11.8% 8.9% -15.8% -25.7%
Maine $7,204 $10,627 $7,155 $8,079 $8,663 $9,453 9.1% 17.0% 32.1% -11.1% 31.2%
Maryland $7,997 $10,725 $7,423 $8,757 $9,802 $11,452 16.8% 30.8% 54.3% 6.8% 43.2%
Massachusetts $8,846 $11,920 $7,146 $8,832 $10,586 $11,972 13.1% 35.6% 67.6% 0.4% 35.3%
Michigan $11,347 $13,895 $7,158 $8,323 $10,592 $10,490 -1.0% 26.0% 46.5% -24.5% -7.6%
Minnesota $11,734 $11,874 $6,652 $9,042 $10,115 $9,746 -3.6% 7.8% 46.5% -17.9% -16.9%
Mississippi $9,848 $11,977 $8,192 $7,475 $7,963 $9,159 15.0% 22.5% 11.8% -23.5% -7.0%
Missouri $11,842 $14,162 $8,045 $8,270 $11,737 $9,688 -17.5% 17.2% 20.4% -31.6% -18.2%
Montana $8,552 $6,587 $5,676 $6,450 $7,105 $7,213 1.5% 11.8% 27.1% 9.5% -15.7%
Nebraska $9,836 $9,781 $10,133 $11,429 $12,845 $13,046 1.6% 14.1% 28.7% 33.4% 32.6%
Nevada $10,102 $10,578 $8,772 $8,870 $8,705 $8,590 -1.3% -3.2% -2.1% -18.8% -15.0%
New Hampshire $5,229 $5,780 $2,066 $3,118 $4,031 $3,990 -1.0% 27.9% 93.1% -31.0% -23.7%
New Jersey $8,858 $11,950 $8,421 $8,031 $9,286 $9,635 3.8% 20.0% 14.4% -19.4% 8.8%
New Mexico $12,018 $12,180 $11,249 $13,371 $18,556 $21,953 18.3% 64.2% 95.1% 80.2% 82.7%
New York $12,220 $11,527 $10,906 $12,985 $13,908 $14,816 6.5% 14.1% 35.8% 28.5% 21.2%
North Carolina $11,502 $14,858 $11,611 $12,004 $12,913 $12,961 0.4% 8.0% 11.6% -12.8% 12.7%
North Dakota $9,215 $7,819 $9,047 $8,930 $9,298 $8,813 -5.2% -1.3% -2.6% 12.7% -4.4%
Ohio $9,290 $11,143 $6,310 $7,601 $7,526 $7,669 1.9% 0.9% 21.5% -31.2% -17.4%
Oklahoma $9,584 $11,699 $9,123 $8,025 $8,149 $8,500 4.3% 5.9% -6.8% -27.3% -11.3%
Oregon $8,098 $8,756 $4,800 $6,046 $8,572 $8,412 -1.9% 39.1% 75.3% -3.9% 3.9%
Pennsylvania $11,040 $11,034 $5,179 $5,324 $6,454 $7,327 13.5% 37.6% 41.5% -33.6% -33.6%
Rhode Island $11,329 $9,802 $5,258 $6,152 $6,950 $6,900 -0.7% 12.2% 31.2% -29.6% -39.1%
South Carolina $10,843 $9,290 $5,887 $7,056 $7,570 $7,728 2.1% 9.5% 31.3% -16.8% -28.7%
South Dakota $10,376 $8,576 $6,807 $7,364 $8,261 $9,644 16.7% 31.0% 41.7% 12.5% -7.1%
Tennessee $10,034 $10,501 $8,770 $11,063 $12,635 $15,422 22.1% 39.4% 75.8% 46.9% 53.7%
Texas $9,344 $10,841 $8,761 $9,145 $10,366 $10,335 -0.3% 13.0% 18.0% -4.7% 10.6%
Utah $11,066 $9,588 $6,999 $8,857 $10,052 $10,956 9.0% 23.7% 56.5% 14.3% -1.0%
Vermont $5,047 $4,600 $3,485 $3,241 $6,696 $5,649 -15.6% 74.3% 62.1% 22.8% 11.9%
Virginia $8,614 $10,708 $5,964 $6,778 $8,749 $9,112 4.1% 34.4% 52.8% -14.9% 5.8%
Washington $9,775 $9,392 $6,246 $8,168 $10,447 $11,233 7.5% 37.5% 79.9% 19.6% 14.9%
West Virginia $9,047 $8,649 $7,124 $5,894 $7,922 $7,654 -3.4% 29.9% 7.4% -11.5% -15.4%
Wisconsin $11,635 $12,997 $9,245 $9,091 $10,075 $9,814 -2.6% 8.0% 6.1% -24.5% -15.7%
Wyoming $16,955 $13,831 $19,705 $19,466 $18,032 $18,531 2.8% -4.8% -6.0% 34.0% 9.3%
D.C. N/A N/A $19,006 $18,989 $28,190 $25,834 -8.4% 36.0% 35.9% N/A N/A
U.S. $9,949 $11,381 $8,079 $9,162 $10,651 $11,040 3.7% 20.5% 36.6% -3.0% 11.0%
Notes:
  1. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Education appropriations include federal stimulus funding.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  3. The years 1980 and 2001 are included in this table because they are the starting points of the historical SHEF dataset and modern SHEF data collection, respectively.
  4. The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is due to a one-time supplemental appropriation.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 education appropriations include estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky.
  6. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system (see the Illinois State Spotlight for more details). Texas developed a new methodology to capture state funding to institutions of higher education and updated FTE enrollment starting in 2017. Years prior to 2017 do not reflect this new methodology, which may affect some year-to-year comparisons.
  7. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI), Enrollment Mix Index (EMI), and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

Table 3.2A presents data on education appropriations per FTE for the public two-year and four-year sectors separately. Two- and four-year institutions have different funding structures and allocation models in many states and vary in the amount of funding they receive from state and local sources. 23 23Unlike state-level education appropriations, sector-level education appropriations exclude agency funding and include only the portion of federal stimulus funding known to be allocated for two-year or four-year public operating purposes. In a handful of states, some state support and financial aid are uncategorizable, meaning they are not allocated to either sector, and are excluded from the sector-level data. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

From 2022 to 2023, inflation-adjusted state and local education appropriations increased 1.6% at two-year institutions, reaching $10,488 per FTE. Two-year public education appropriations per FTE ranged widely across states, from $4,910 in Louisiana to $20,295 per FTE in Alabama. 24 24The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is, at least, in part due to a one-time supplemental appropriation. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES From 2022 to 2023, two-year education appropriations per FTE declined in 23 states. Decreases ranged from 14.9% (or $901 per FTE) in Vermont to 0.8% ($89 per FTE) in Oregon. Twenty-six states had increases in two-year education appropriations per FTE in 2023. These year-over-year increases ranged from 0.1% (or $16 per FTE) in Delaware to 86.4% (or $9,410 per FTE) in Alabama. 25 25The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is, at least, in part due to a one-time supplemental appropriation. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

At four-year institutions, education appropriations per FTE increased 4.2% from 2022 to 2023, reaching $10,238. Appropriations ranged even more widely in the four-year sector, from less than $5,000 per student in Arizona and New Hampshire to over $20,000 per student in Illinois, New Mexico, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Increases ranged from 0.2% (or $26 per FTE) in Nebraska to 38.5% (or $3,447 per FTE) in Alabama. From 2022 to 2023, four-year education appropriations per FTE declined in 20 states and Washington, D.C. Decreases ranged from 0.06% (or $4 per FTE) in Ohio to 24.6% (or $1,884 per FTE) in Delaware.

Sector-level education appropriations in 2023 included $75 per FTE in federal stimulus for two-year institutions and $125 per FTE in federal stimulus for four-year institutions. Excluding federal stimulus funding, education appropriations to two- and four-year institutions increased 1.4% and 4.8%, respectively, from 2022 to 2023. 

  • Without federal stimulus funding, two-year education appropriations declined in 20 states. Declines ranged from 0.9% in New Jersey to 14.8% in New Mexico.
  • Two-year education appropriations per FTE excluding federal stimulus funding increased in 29 states with the smallest increase having been 0.06% in Oregon and the largest having been 86.4% in Alabama.
  • Sixteen states and Washington, D.C., had declines in four-year education appropriations when excluding federal stimulus funding. Decreases ranged from 0.4% in West Virginia to 22.3% in Connecticut.
  • Of the 34 states that saw increases in four-year education appropriations excluding federal stimulus funding, the increases ranged from 0.2% in Nebraska to 38.5% in Alabama. 

Figure 3.2A displays the disparity in funding between the two- and four-year public sectors within each state. States on the left side of the figure (the light blue bars) have relatively higher per-FTE appropriations in the two-year sector, while states on the right side of the figure (the dark blue bars) have higher per-FTE appropriations in the four-year sector. 

  • In 2023, two-year education appropriations per FTE were 2.4% higher than four-year education appropriations, with 26 states reporting higher funding in the two-year sector. If research, agriculture, and medical (RAM) appropriations were included in the education appropriations total, four-year institutions would receive $1,822 more than two-year institutions per FTE, or 17.4% higher.
  • Arizona had the largest education appropriation disparity favoring the two-year sector (92.6% higher), although this is entirely due to local appropriations that exclusively support community colleges. Florida has the highest disparity favoring the four-year sector, with 72.1% greater education appropriations per FTE at four-year institutions.

These high-level data on education appropriations should be interpreted cautiously and with consideration of each state’s broader context. This is because education appropriations attempt to make higher education funding more comparable across states by including local appropriations (which primarily support two-year institutions) but excluding research, agriculture, and medical appropriations, which only support four-year institutions. 

To help explain the components of sector-level education appropriations, Table 3.2B breaks out the different sources of state and local support per FTE for two- and four-year public institutions in fiscal year 2023.

  • Two-year public institutions received $6,325 per FTE in state general operating appropriations, 71.6% of the four-year general operating appropriation ($8,834).
  • State financial aid awards averaged $656 at two-year institutions, 52.1% of the $1,259 awarded to students attending four-year institutions.
  • Local appropriations were 167.0 times higher at two-year institutions ($3,432) compared to four-year institutions ($21 per FTE). There were two-year local appropriations in 29 states, compared to only seven for four-year institutions.
  • RAM averaged $2,072 at four-year institutions. These funds, which are only allocated to four-year institutions, are excluded from education appropriations but included in total state support.
  • Total state and local support at two-year institutions was $10,488, 85.2% of the amount at four-year institutions ($12,314).

Figure 3.2A

Percent Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year Public Higher Education Appropriations per FTE by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Sector-level education appropriations include any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector, but exclude state agency funding.
  2. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level education appropriations include estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky.
  5. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in sector-level education appropriations. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
  6. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.2A

Public Higher Education Appropriations per FTE by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

Two-Year Education Appropriations Four-Year Education Appropriations
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019
Alabama $8,266 $10,885 $20,295 1.93 86.4% 145.5% $7,950 $8,948 $12,395 1.21 38.5% 55.9%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $17,578 $18,646 $19,589 1.91 5.1% 11.4%
Arizona $10,893 $13,324 $12,941 1.23 -2.9% 18.8% $4,062 $3,771 $4,751 0.46 26.0% 17.0%
Arkansas $9,162 $10,266 $10,056 0.96 -2.0% 9.8% $8,974 $9,915 $8,677 0.85 -12.5% -3.3%
California $9,574 $10,599 $10,293 0.98 -2.9% 7.5% $9,367 $10,100 $10,818 1.06 7.1% 15.5%
Colorado $6,822 $8,366 $7,644 0.73 -8.6% 12.1% $4,687 $5,515 $5,997 0.59 8.7% 28.0%
Connecticut $9,970 $14,971 $18,330 1.75 22.4% 83.8% $10,989 $13,882 $12,034 1.18 -13.3% 9.5%
Delaware $10,140 $12,179 $12,196 1.16 0.1% 20.3% $6,278 $7,670 $5,787 0.57 -24.6% -7.8%
Florida $5,402 $6,162 $6,414 0.61 4.1% 18.7% $13,402 $13,261 $13,650 1.33 2.9% 1.9%
Georgia $7,869 $9,800 $9,723 0.93 -0.8% 23.6% $11,607 $14,622 $14,095 1.38 -3.6% 21.4%
Hawaii $11,846 $13,533 $15,404 1.47 13.8% 30.0% $14,887 $13,112 $14,907 1.46 13.7% 0.1%
Idaho $6,229 $6,802 $7,128 0.68 4.8% 14.4% $10,378 $9,908 $10,250 1.00 3.4% -1.2%
Illinois $13,920 $17,598 $18,474 1.76 5.0% 32.7% $22,124 $24,449 $24,200 2.36 -1.0% 9.4%
Indiana $6,554 $6,711 $6,093 0.58 -9.2% -7.0% $7,903 $7,382 $7,043 0.69 -4.6% -10.9%
Iowa $5,297 $6,383 $6,215 0.59 -2.6% 17.3% $7,629 $7,867 $7,721 0.75 -1.9% 1.2%
Kansas $9,925 $11,838 $12,011 1.15 1.5% 21.0% $6,879 $7,606 $8,442 0.82 11.0% 22.7%
Kentucky $6,964 $7,533 $7,914 0.75 5.1% 13.6% $9,081 $10,085 $10,432 1.02 3.4% 14.9%
Louisiana $4,162 $4,992 $4,910 0.47 -1.7% 18.0% $7,206 $7,368 $7,086 0.69 -3.8% -1.7%
Maine $8,320 $9,593 $10,109 0.96 5.4% 21.5% $8,200 $8,645 $9,496 0.93 9.8% 15.8%
Maryland $8,597 $10,892 $11,238 1.07 3.2% 30.7% $9,058 $9,093 $11,229 1.10 23.5% 24.0%
Massachusetts $7,498 $10,181 $12,312 1.17 20.9% 64.2% $9,372 $10,450 $11,539 1.13 10.4% 23.1%
Michigan $11,053 $13,807 $14,722 1.40 6.6% 33.2% $7,356 $9,349 $8,392 0.82 -10.2% 14.1%
Minnesota $7,495 $8,896 $8,663 0.83 -2.6% 15.6% $9,015 $9,682 $9,608 0.94 -0.8% 6.6%
Mississippi $7,056 $7,878 $8,342 0.80 5.9% 18.2% $7,498 $7,817 $9,529 0.93 21.9% 27.1%
Missouri $7,636 $13,375 $12,159 1.16 -9.1% 59.2% $8,387 $10,771 $8,398 0.82 -22.0% 0.1%
Montana $6,196 $6,920 $6,446 0.61 -6.8% 4.0% $7,028 $7,485 $7,712 0.75 3.0% 9.7%
Nebraska $12,836 $15,585 $14,555 1.39 -6.6% 13.4% $10,826 $11,575 $11,601 1.13 0.2% 7.2%
Nevada $6,838 $7,021 $7,788 0.74 10.9% 13.9% $10,068 $9,688 $9,059 0.88 -6.5% -10.0%
New Hampshire $5,167 $7,215 $7,247 0.69 0.4% 40.3% $2,609 $3,201 $3,134 0.31 -2.1% 20.1%
New Jersey $4,642 $5,535 $5,488 0.52 -0.9% 18.2% $8,563 $9,680 $10,279 1.00 6.2% 20.0%
New Mexico $11,578 $17,390 $14,811 1.41 -14.8% 27.9% $17,949 $18,915 $24,222 2.37 28.1% 34.9%
New York $10,050 $11,742 $11,999 1.14 2.2% 19.4% $15,087 $14,610 $15,835 1.55 8.4% 5.0%
North Carolina $9,199 $10,001 $9,524 0.91 -4.8% 3.5% $14,149 $14,288 $15,028 1.47 5.2% 6.2%
North Dakota $8,108 $8,755 $8,080 0.77 -7.7% -0.4% $8,358 $8,583 $8,205 0.80 -4.4% -1.8%
Ohio $8,766 $7,481 $8,119 0.77 8.5% -7.4% $6,914 $7,410 $7,406 0.72 -0.1% 7.1%
Oklahoma $6,743 $7,493 $8,193 0.78 9.3% 21.5% $7,763 $7,605 $7,812 0.76 2.7% 0.6%
Oregon $8,022 $11,489 $11,400 1.09 -0.8% 42.1% $5,162 $6,605 $6,451 0.63 -2.3% 25.0%
Pennsylvania $6,144 $7,605 $7,797 0.74 2.5% 26.9% $5,641 $5,895 $7,020 0.69 19.1% 24.4%
Rhode Island $6,036 $7,893 $7,575 0.72 -4.0% 25.5% $5,583 $6,235 $6,264 0.61 0.5% 12.2%
South Carolina $7,800 $7,614 $7,538 0.72 -1.0% -3.4% $6,410 $7,204 $7,619 0.74 5.8% 18.9%
South Dakota $5,479 $5,471 $6,013 0.57 9.9% 9.7% $6,812 $7,338 $7,811 0.76 6.4% 14.7%
Tennessee $10,128 $10,813 $14,437 1.38 33.5% 42.5% $11,640 $12,246 $13,511 1.32 10.3% 16.1%
Texas $7,559 $8,975 $9,086 0.87 1.2% 20.2% $7,403 $7,385 $7,005 0.68 -5.1% -5.4%
Utah $10,461 $11,450 $12,622 1.20 10.2% 20.7% $9,010 $9,599 $10,502 1.03 9.4% 16.6%
Vermont $3,014 $6,032 $5,131 0.49 -14.9% 70.3% $3,116 $5,345 $5,036 0.49 -5.8% 61.6%
Virginia $5,510 $6,856 $7,298 0.70 6.4% 32.4% $7,311 $8,592 $9,354 0.91 8.9% 28.0%
Washington $7,428 $9,546 $10,297 0.98 7.9% 38.6% $9,283 $10,879 $11,498 1.12 5.7% 23.9%
West Virginia $7,870 $10,721 $10,357 0.99 -3.4% 31.6% $5,864 $6,708 $6,679 0.65 -0.4% 13.9%
Wisconsin $13,410 $15,410 $14,862 1.42 -3.6% 10.8% $6,247 $6,877 $6,693 0.65 -2.7% 7.1%
Wyoming $18,842 $14,750 $13,907 1.33 -5.7% -26.2% $21,094 $19,769 $21,526 2.10 8.9% 2.0%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $20,229 $26,995 $24,975 2.44 -7.5% 23.5%
U.S. $8,825 $10,322 $10,488 1.00 1.6% 18.9% $9,168 $9,826 $10,238 1.00 4.2% 11.7%
Notes:
  1. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Sector-level education appropriations include any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector but exclude state agency funding.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is due to a one-time supplemental appropriation.
  6. Fiscal year 2023 education appropriations include estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky.
  7. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  8. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.2B

Components of Public Higher Education Appropriations per FTE by Sector and State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)

Two-Year Public Institutions Four-Year Public Institutions
State Operating State Financial Aid Local Education Appropriations State and Local Support State Operating State Financial Aid Local Education Appropriations RAM State and Local Support
Alabama $20,123 $125 $47 $20,295 $20,295 $12,079 $316 $0 $12,395 $3,260 $15,678
Alaska $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $18,755 $775 $59 $19,589 $1,474 $21,063
Arizona $1,667 $7 $11,267 $12,941 $12,941 $4,480 $270 $0 $4,751 $1,303 $6,053
Arkansas $7,918 $439 $1,699 $10,056 $10,056 $7,413 $1,264 $0 $8,677 $3,446 $12,134
California $6,389 $566 $3,339 $10,293 $10,293 $9,176 $1,642 $0 $10,818 $1,690 $12,508
Colorado $4,517 $1,157 $1,970 $7,644 $7,644 $4,818 $1,179 $0 $5,997 $1,426 $7,423
Connecticut $14,197 $689 $0 $18,330 $18,330 $10,234 $192 $0 $12,034 $4,284 $16,318
Delaware $12,077 $118 $0 $12,196 $12,196 $5,183 $603 $0 $5,787 $338 $6,124
Florida $5,667 $566 $181 $6,414 $6,414 $11,119 $2,531 $0 $13,650 $1,804 $15,454
Georgia $8,227 $940 $0 $9,723 $9,723 $10,021 $3,020 $0 $14,095 $2,216 $16,311
Hawaii $13,800 $250 $0 $15,404 $15,404 $13,660 $94 $0 $14,907 $4,703 $19,610
Idaho $4,090 $189 $2,845 $7,128 $7,128 $9,788 $427 $0 $10,250 $1,758 $12,008
Illinois $8,988 $623 $8,738 $18,474 $18,474 $22,349 $1,824 $0 $24,200 $1,245 $25,445
Indiana $5,431 $663 $0 $6,093 $6,093 $5,788 $1,255 $0 $7,043 $1,760 $8,802
Iowa $4,729 $607 $879 $6,215 $6,215 $7,586 $134 $0 $7,721 $2,066 $9,816
Kansas $4,794 $255 $6,962 $12,011 $12,011 $7,542 $469 $431 $8,442 $3,183 $11,712
Kentucky $5,635 $2,222 $0 $7,914 $7,914 $7,816 $2,172 $422 $10,432 $2,196 $12,628
Louisiana $4,293 $616 $0 $4,910 $4,910 $4,416 $2,670 $0 $7,086 $3,129 $10,259
Maine $7,402 $2,064 $0 $10,109 $10,109 $8,543 $714 $0 $9,496 $1,644 $11,140
Maryland $5,549 $119 $5,570 $11,238 $11,238 $10,682 $546 $0 $11,229 $2,176 $13,404
Massachusetts $11,459 $853 $0 $12,312 $12,312 $10,830 $709 $0 $11,539 $539 $12,078
Michigan $5,406 $669 $7,852 $14,722 $14,722 $8,369 $23 $0 $8,392 $910 $9,302
Minnesota $8,047 $615 $0 $8,663 $8,663 $8,499 $1,109 $0 $9,608 $2,247 $11,855
Mississippi $6,610 $167 $1,565 $8,342 $8,342 $8,847 $682 $0 $9,529 $5,547 $15,077
Missouri $5,430 $1,871 $4,794 $12,159 $12,159 $7,560 $818 $0 $8,398 $2,381 $10,778
Montana $4,737 $36 $1,673 $6,446 $6,446 $7,662 $49 $0 $7,712 $1,607 $9,319
Nebraska $5,009 $262 $9,284 $14,555 $14,555 $11,234 $364 $0 $11,601 $4,786 $16,387
Nevada $6,856 $530 $0 $7,788 $7,788 $6,579 $1,802 $11 $9,059 $1,927 $10,986
New Hampshire $6,747 $501 $0 $7,247 $7,247 $2,883 $142 $0 $3,134 $545 $3,679
New Jersey $2,148 $870 $2,470 $5,488 $5,488 $8,517 $1,762 $0 $10,279 $1,688 $11,967
New Mexico $7,801 $951 $6,059 $14,811 $14,811 $19,052 $5,171 $0 $24,222 $4,141 $28,400
New York $4,346 $742 $6,911 $11,999 $11,999 $14,203 $1,460 $172 $15,835 $1,019 $16,854
North Carolina $7,246 $97 $1,974 $9,524 $9,524 $14,095 $933 $0 $15,028 $3,060 $18,088
North Dakota $7,443 $637 $0 $8,080 $8,080 $7,661 $543 $0 $8,205 $3,574 $11,779
Ohio $5,514 $66 $2,539 $8,119 $8,119 $6,931 $474 $0 $7,406 $1,123 $8,529
Oklahoma $5,402 $909 $1,883 $8,193 $8,193 $6,789 $1,023 N/A $7,812 $1,885 $9,697
Oregon $5,979 $1,127 $4,294 $11,400 $11,400 $5,711 $740 $0 $6,451 $1,615 $8,065
Pennsylvania $4,817 $419 $2,561 $7,797 $7,797 $5,488 $832 $0 $7,020 $404 $7,424
Rhode Island $6,265 $1,110 $0 $7,575 $7,575 $6,076 $188 $0 $6,264 $0 $6,264
South Carolina $3,798 $2,068 $1,672 $7,538 $7,538 $5,214 $2,400 $5 $7,619 $2,118 $9,742
South Dakota $5,974 $38 $0 $6,013 $6,013 $7,561 $250 $0 $7,811 $2,121 $9,932
Tennessee $9,690 $4,747 $0 $14,437 $14,437 $10,715 $2,796 $0 $13,511 $4,033 $17,545
Texas $2,574 $123 $6,370 $9,086 $9,086 $5,937 $827 N/A $7,005 $4,464 $11,469
Utah $12,431 $190 $0 $12,622 $12,622 $10,167 $335 $0 $10,502 $1,204 $11,707
Vermont $3,567 $1,530 $0 $5,131 $5,131 $3,821 $379 $0 $5,036 $1,069 $6,138
Virginia $5,960 $1,277 $61 $7,298 $7,298 $7,887 $1,405 $62 $9,354 $1,564 $10,946
Washington $9,186 $1,110 $0 $10,297 $10,297 $9,017 $2,481 $0 $11,498 $1,171 $12,669
West Virginia $8,459 $1,898 $0 $10,357 $10,357 $5,181 $1,498 $0 $6,679 $3,040 $9,719
Wisconsin $9,735 $504 $4,623 $14,862 $14,862 $5,822 $664 $0 $6,693 $1,568 $8,261
Wyoming $9,841 $20 $4,046 $13,907 $13,907 $17,770 $2,811 $0 $21,526 $4,259 $25,784
D.C. $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $23,561 $809 $0 $24,975 $6,472 $31,447
U.S. $6,325 $656 $3,432 $10,488 $10,488 $8,834 $1,259 $21 $10,238 $2,072 $12,314
Notes:
  1. State public operating appropriations are a measure of state support directly allocated to public two- and four-year institutions. State public operating excludes local appropriations, agency funding, RAM, and student financial aid.
  2. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For some states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses.
  3. Local appropriations are any local government taxes allocated directly to institutions for operating expenses.
  4. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Sector-level education appropriations include any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector but exclude state agency funding.
  5. RAM refers to the total appropriations intended for the direct operations of research, agriculture, public health care services, and medical schools.
  6. Total state and local support is the sum of federal stimulus funds, state and local tax appropriations, non-tax support, non-appropriated support, state-funded endowment earnings, and other state funds, net of any funds not available for use. RAM is included in four-year state and local support. Sector-level state and local support includes any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector.
  7. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  8. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  9. Fiscal year 2023 two- and four-year state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  10. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  11. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

State Public Financial Aid

Map 3.3

State Public Financial Aid per FTE, FY 2023

State public financial aid is the part of education appropriations allocated to financial aid for students attending public institutions, excluding loans. While we present financial aid on a per-FTE basis along with all other metrics in the SHEF report, it is important to note that financial aid is not awarded to all students, and changes in aid per FTE could be due to rising award amounts or an increase in the number of students receiving an award.

Financial aid has increased steadily despite economic recessions that negatively impacted the rest of education appropriations. The SHEF data collection on financial aid goes back to 2001. From that year forward, financial aid per FTE has increased in all but two years. 

State public financial aid per FTE increased 2.5% from 2022 to 2023 and reached an all-time high of $1,050 per FTE enrolled student. Because financial aid per FTE has a low base, percentage increases represent smaller dollar-amount increases than similar figures in the other revenue metrics. The 2.5% increase in the last year corresponded to an additional $26 per FTE in financial aid.

1. State Comparisons

States vary considerably in the size and extent of their financial aid programs (Figure 3.3). In 2023, all states and Washington, D.C., had at least one public financial aid program. Public state financial aid ranged from $44 per FTE in Montana to over $3,000 per FTE in New Mexico ($3,444 per FTE) and Tennessee ($3,478 per FTE). 

Since 2001, per-student aid has increased in 44 states. Despite the longstanding increases in financial aid nationally, per-student aid has decreased in 23 states and Washington, D.C., from 2022 to 2023 (Table 3.3). The largest percentage decrease was in Michigan (30.7%), with a decrease of $95 per FTE. 26 26In fiscal year 2023, Michigan created the Michigan Achievement Scholarship and deposited $250 million into the Post-Secondary Scholarship Fund to implement the new scholarship and start awarding students in fiscal year 2024. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES The smallest decrease in financial aid was in Rhode Island (0.04%) with a decrease of less than 20 cents per FTE. 

Financial aid per FTE increased in 27 states from 2022 to 2023. Of these states, increases ranged from 1.8% (or $7 per FTE) in Kansas to 103.5% (or $1,752 per FTE) in New Mexico. 27 27In fiscal year 2023, New Mexico invested $146 million dollars to fund the New Mexico Opportunity Scholarship. See the New Mexico State Spotlight for more information. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Figure 3.3

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid per FTE by State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)


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Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. In several states, financial aid may include unawarded funds that were reverted back to the state.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  3. Fiscal year 2023 state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  4. In California, state funds used for nontuition financial aid are estimated and classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in state financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
  5. Constant 2023 dollars adjusted by the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA).
  6. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Enrollment Mix Index (EMI).
  7. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Cost of Living Index (COLI). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.3

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid per FTE by State, FY 2001-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2018 % Change Since 2013 % Change Since 2001
Alabama $173 $369 $678 $316 $296 -6.2% -56.3% -19.8% 71.2%
Alaska $0 $470 $884 $900 $809 -10.2% -8.5% 72.1% N/A
Arizona $33 $55 $46 $116 $188 62.4% 310.6% 240.0% 474.3%
Arkansas $713 $1,734 $1,209 $1,298 $1,081 -16.7% -10.6% -37.7% 51.5%
California $411 $883 $892 $1,028 $1,048 2.0% 17.5% 18.7% 154.8%
Colorado $770 $645 $867 $1,251 $1,337 6.8% 54.1% 107.3% 73.5%
Connecticut $541 $344 $346 $319 $331 3.6% -4.4% -3.8% -38.8%
Delaware $536 $480 $426 $479 $498 3.8% 16.9% 3.7% -7.2%
Florida $937 $884 $1,248 $1,609 $1,565 -2.7% 25.5% 77.0% 67.0%
Georgia $2,064 $1,891 $2,350 $2,565 $2,542 -0.9% 8.2% 34.5% 23.2%
Hawaii $11 $70 $109 $196 $148 -24.6% 35.7% 111.1% 1243.2%
Idaho $112 $137 $297 $355 $370 4.3% 24.7% 170.6% 229.3%
Illinois $1,161 $780 $931 $1,104 $1,346 22.0% 44.6% 72.6% 16.0%
Indiana $683 $1,144 $1,423 $1,185 $1,091 -7.9% -23.3% -4.6% 59.7%
Iowa $60 $169 $73 $328 $338 2.9% 360.8% 100.0% 466.5%
Kansas $130 $114 $108 $379 $386 1.8% 255.8% 238.7% 196.0%
Kentucky $350 $1,260 $1,597 $1,782 $2,177 22.2% 36.4% 72.8% 522.2%
Louisiana $931 $1,628 $2,321 $2,437 $2,150 -11.8% -7.3% 32.1% 131.1%
Maine $442 $262 $553 $606 $1,114 83.7% 101.5% 325.1% 152.0%
Maryland $399 $329 $378 $379 $406 7.3% 7.6% 23.7% 1.9%
Massachusetts $650 $364 $364 $612 $757 23.7% 108.3% 108.0% 16.4%
Michigan $799 $3 $35 $308 $213 -30.7% 512.0% 6550.3% -73.3%
Minnesota $789 $670 $818 $871 $920 5.5% 12.4% 37.2% 16.5%
Mississippi $603 $317 $359 $431 $457 5.8% 27.1% 44.1% -24.2%
Missouri $329 $546 $740 $1,113 $1,144 2.8% 54.6% 109.5% 247.7%
Montana $153 $146 $47 $46 $44 -4.4% -5.7% -69.7% -70.9%
Nebraska $59 $185 $245 $335 $330 -1.2% 35.0% 78.9% 456.8%
Nevada $1,039 $1,235 $1,352 $1,344 $1,292 -3.9% -4.4% 4.6% 24.4%
New Hampshire $41 $0 $97 $160 $221 38.0% 126.9% N/A 435.2%
New Jersey $979 $1,018 $1,204 $1,473 $1,521 3.3% 26.3% 49.4% 55.4%
New Mexico $993 $1,215 $953 $1,692 $3,444 103.5% 261.3% 183.4% 246.8%
New York $1,107 $1,290 $1,542 $1,343 $1,227 -8.6% -20.5% -4.9% 10.8%
North Carolina $335 $575 $483 $449 $563 25.3% 16.6% -2.2% 68.1%
North Dakota $54 $445 $504 $587 $552 -5.9% 9.6% 24.2% 927.9%
Ohio $347 $242 $300 $365 $381 4.3% 26.9% 57.4% 9.7%
Oklahoma $393 $998 $1,043 $919 $987 7.4% -5.4% -1.1% 151.3%
Oregon $217 $338 $546 $742 $876 18.0% 60.4% 159.0% 303.5%
Pennsylvania $952 $830 $673 $821 $891 8.5% 32.4% 7.4% -6.4%
Rhode Island $183 $310 $271 $441 $441 0.0% 62.7% 42.5% 140.8%
South Carolina $570 $2,091 $2,129 $2,362 $2,252 -4.6% 5.8% 7.7% 294.9%
South Dakota $8 $162 $242 $225 $216 -4.1% -10.5% 33.7% 2650.9%
Tennessee $326 $2,214 $2,800 $3,308 $3,478 5.1% 24.2% 57.1% 967.1%
Texas $23 $315 $564 $635 $602 -5.3% 6.7% 90.8% 2560.3%
Utah $97 $138 $200 $308 $302 -1.8% 50.8% 118.5% 209.7%
Vermont $539 $481 $495 $475 $549 15.5% 10.9% 14.1% 1.9%
Virginia $566 $692 $888 $1,270 $1,351 6.4% 52.2% 95.2% 138.7%
Washington $749 $1,412 $1,295 $1,804 $1,790 -0.8% 38.2% 26.8% 139.1%
West Virginia $464 $1,500 $1,534 $1,553 $1,522 -2.0% -0.8% 1.4% 227.7%
Wisconsin $465 $691 $676 $614 $614 -0.1% -9.2% -11.2% 31.9%
Wyoming $1,095 $1,404 $1,565 $1,758 $1,359 -22.7% -13.2% -3.3% 24.1%
D.C. N/A $1,945 $1,280 $1,068 $836 -21.7% -34.6% -57.0% N/A
U.S. $577 $771 $891 $1,025 $1,050 2.5% 17.9% 36.2% 82.2%
Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. In several states, financial aid may include unawarded funds that were reverted back to the state.
  2. Financial aid data are not available prior to 2001. Over time, states have shifted from reporting appropriated student financial aid to reporting actual/awarded student financial aid. Any such updates are made to all historical data for each state.
  3. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  5. In California, state funds used for nontuition financial aid are estimated and classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in state financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
  6. Texas developed a new methodology to capture state funding to institutions of higher education and updated FTE enrollment starting in 2017. Years prior to 2017 do not reflect this new methodology, which may affect some year-to-year comparisons.
  7. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI), Enrollment Mix Index (EMI), and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

State Spotlight : New Mexico

NM

New MexicoIn 2020, New Mexico established the New Mexico Opportunity Scholarship. Following the enactment of the Opportunity Scholarship Act in 2022, New Mexico saw a 103.5% increase in public financial aid from fiscal years 2022 to 2023. More specifically, two-year public financial aid increased 63.8% and four-year public financial increased 109.2%.

The New Mexico Opportunity Scholarship differs from many other tuition-free college programs in multiple ways, most notably in that the New Mexico Opportunity Scholarship employs a first-dollar approach. This means the scholarship is applied before other types of non-state aid including federal Pell Grants. Additionally, the program is open to all students, who don’t already have a bachelor’s degree, attending any two-year or four-year public institution, whether they enroll full-time or part-time. While many other states with tuition-free college programs are limited to recent high school graduates, or designated as a program that reconnects adults who started, but did not complete a postsecondary program, the New Mexico Opportunity Scholarship is open to all New Mexico residents regardless of age. Though half of all states continued to see enrollment declines from 2022 to 2023, FTE enrollment in New Mexico increased by 4.2%. This deviation from national trends may be, at least in part, due to the state’s additional $146 million investment in the Opportunity Scholarship.

2. Sector Comparisons

Table 3.3A presents state financial aid allocated to FTE students attending the public two-year and four-year sectors, separately. In some cases, states were not able to identify the sector for some of their financial aid dollars. In those cases, the funds were listed as “uncategorizable” and are excluded from this section. 28 28Overall, 1.8% of state public financial aid was uncategorizable. Thirty-five states and Washington, D.C., were able to classify all state public financial aid by sector and listed no uncategorizable aid. In four states, more than 10% of aid could not be classified by sector: Alabama (13.4%), Colorado (14.4%), Pennsylvania (18.6%), and Texas (12.5%). Additionally, in California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in sector-level data. See the California State Spotlight for more details. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

At two-year institutions, state public financial aid increased 1.9% from 2022 to 2023 (a $12 increase per student), reaching $656 per FTE. Aid ranged from $7 per FTE in Arizona to $4,747 in Tennessee. Montana, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wyoming were the only other states to provide less than $100 per FTE student while Kentucky, Maine, and South Carolina were the only other states to provide more than $2,000 per FTE.

Financial aid to two-year institutions increased in 26 states from 2022 to 2023. The largest increase was in Maine (124.2%, or $1,143 per FTE) 29 29Maine implemented a new tuition-free college scholarship program in fiscal year 2023. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES while the smallest was in Georgia (1.7%, or $15 per FTE). Of the 23 states with declines, decreases ranged from 0.3% (or $2 per FTE) in Iowa to 96.1% (or $481 per FTE) in Wyoming. 30 30The large decline in Wyoming for fiscal year 2023 is due to the state having used federal stimulus dollars to fund student aid for nursing programs that were previously funded using state dollars. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

At four-year institutions, state public financial aid increased 2.8%, or $35 per FTE, totaling $1,259 per FTE from 2022 to 2023. Aid ranged from $23 per FTE in Michigan to $5,171 per FTE in New Mexico. This means that New Mexico provided 1.7 times the amount of four-year financial aid than Georgia, which had the second largest amount at $3,020 per FTE.

From 2022 to 2023, four-year aid allocations increased in half of all states. The other 25 states and Washington, D.C., had decreases in per-FTE financial aid. Decreases ranged from 0.07% (less than 30 cents per FTE) in Idaho to 37.4% (or $115 per FTE) in Connecticut. 

Measurement Note: Financial Aid Reporting

financial aid reporting

Starting in 2020, the SHEF data collection asked states to provide state financial aid by sector. For many statewide programs, there is not a separate financial aid appropriation for two-year and four-year public institutions, and actual allocations must be reported to obtain accurate sector-level data. As a result, many states switched from reporting financial aid appropriations to reporting actual allocations by sector. A handful of states, including those with multiple sector-level data providers, have always provided financial aid allocations. This reporting change is noteworthy because financial aid awards depend on the number of students who qualify and apply for each aid program, and appropriations rarely match allocations. In all cases, prior year data were corrected to match the new reporting methodology, or unallocated funds were listed as “uncategorizable public aid” to ensure continuity in state support definitions over time. Nevertheless, this reporting change marks a departure from the historical practice of SHEF reporting state appropriations for financial aid.

Figure 3.3A displays the disparity in state financial aid between the two- and four-year public sectors within each state. States on the left side of the figure (the light blue bars) have higher per-FTE financial aid in the two-year sector, while states on the right side of the figure (the dark blue bars) have relatively higher per-FTE financial aid in the four-year sector. While most states have greater financial aid in the four-year sector (62.9% higher, on national average), the four-year sector also has much higher tuition rates. Michigan had the largest disparity in financial aid, favoring its two-year sector (186.5% higher), while Wyoming had the largest disparity, favoring its four-year sector (197.2% higher). 31 31The large decline in Wyoming for fiscal year 2023 is due to the state having used federal stimulus dollars to fund student aid for nursing programs that were previously funded using state dollars. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Figure 3.3A

Percent Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year Public Higher Education State Financial Aid per FTE by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. Sector-level state public financial aid excludes any financial aid that could not be categorized by sector. Differences in aid amounts across sector capture variation in the proportion of students receiving an award as well as differences in average award size.
  2. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 two- and four-year state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  5. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in sector-level financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.3A

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid per FTE by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

Two-Year Financial Aid Four-Year Financial Aid
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2022 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019
Alabama $184 $129 $125 0.19 -3.3% -32.2% $576 $349 $316 0.25 -9.4% -45.2%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $792 $869 $775 0.62 -10.8% -2.2%
Arizona $7 $7 $7 0.01 -5.3% 3.3% $69 $163 $270 0.21 65.4% 294.2%
Arkansas $321 $421 $439 0.67 4.2% 36.8% $1,487 $1,571 $1,264 1.00 -19.5% -15.0%
California $775 $582 $566 0.86 -2.8% -27.0% $1,008 $1,576 $1,642 1.30 4.2% 62.9%
Colorado $1,038 $1,164 $1,157 1.76 -0.6% 11.5% $916 $1,061 $1,179 0.94 11.1% 28.7%
Connecticut $352 $351 $689 1.05 96.0% 95.4% $310 $307 $192 0.15 -37.4% -38.0%
Delaware $111 $119 $118 0.18 -0.9% 6.9% $580 $591 $603 0.48 2.1% 4.1%
Florida $540 $575 $566 0.86 -1.4% 5.0% $2,591 $2,608 $2,531 2.01 -3.0% -2.3%
Georgia $919 $925 $940 1.43 1.7% 2.3% $2,956 $3,041 $3,020 2.40 -0.7% 2.1%
Hawaii $158 $373 $250 0.38 -32.9% 58.8% $105 $98 $94 0.07 -4.0% -10.6%
Idaho $231 $136 $189 0.29 39.2% -18.3% $430 $427 $427 0.34 -0.1% -0.8%
Illinois $366 $510 $623 0.95 22.4% 70.2% $1,376 $1,506 $1,824 1.45 21.1% 32.6%
Indiana $731 $775 $663 1.01 -14.5% -9.3% $1,610 $1,333 $1,255 1.00 -5.8% -22.1%
Iowa $135 $609 $607 0.92 -0.3% 348.1% $73 $118 $134 0.11 13.7% 84.4%
Kansas $24 $263 $255 0.39 -3.0% 973.4% $217 $452 $469 0.37 3.7% 116.2%
Kentucky $1,739 $1,933 $2,222 3.39 14.9% 27.8% $1,583 $1,730 $2,172 1.73 25.5% 37.2%
Louisiana $492 $658 $616 0.94 -6.4% 25.2% $2,964 $2,993 $2,670 2.12 -10.8% -9.9%
Maine $806 $920 $2,064 3.14 124.2% 156.2% $487 $518 $714 0.57 37.7% 46.4%
Maryland $87 $154 $119 0.18 -23.2% 36.7% $472 $484 $546 0.43 12.8% 15.8%
Massachusetts $424 $680 $853 1.30 25.5% 101.5% $399 $576 $709 0.56 23.1% 77.8%
Michigan $8 $982 $669 1.02 -31.9% 8709.6% $31 $24 $23 0.02 -3.8% -25.0%
Minnesota $584 $579 $615 0.94 6.3% 5.3% $1,059 $1,050 $1,109 0.88 5.6% 4.7%
Mississippi $147 $162 $167 0.25 3.1% 13.5% $606 $641 $682 0.54 6.3% 12.5%
Missouri $965 $1,803 $1,871 2.85 3.8% 93.8% $636 $800 $818 0.65 2.1% 28.5%
Montana $27 $39 $36 0.05 -7.5% 33.8% $55 $51 $49 0.04 -3.7% -10.7%
Nebraska $235 $276 $262 0.40 -5.2% 11.6% $267 $362 $364 0.29 0.5% 36.2%
Nevada $605 $587 $530 0.81 -9.6% -12.4% $1,986 $1,856 $1,802 1.43 -2.9% -9.3%
New Hampshire $350 $386 $501 0.76 29.8% 43.1% $42 $96 $142 0.11 48.8% 237.1%
New Jersey $707 $831 $870 1.33 4.7% 23.1% $1,603 $1,729 $1,762 1.40 1.9% 9.9%
New Mexico $292 $580 $951 1.45 63.8% 225.9% $1,989 $2,472 $5,171 4.11 109.2% 159.9%
New York $1,227 $785 $742 1.13 -5.6% -39.5% $1,725 $1,608 $1,460 1.16 -9.2% -15.4%
North Carolina $116 $110 $97 0.15 -12.2% -16.7% $752 $703 $933 0.74 32.7% 24.1%
North Dakota $484 $653 $637 0.97 -2.6% 31.6% $523 $584 $543 0.43 -7.0% 3.9%
Ohio $40 $32 $66 0.10 109.1% 67.5% $374 $439 $474 0.38 8.0% 26.8%
Oklahoma $725 $587 $909 1.38 54.8% 25.3% $1,184 $1,060 $1,023 0.81 -3.5% -13.6%
Oregon $790 $933 $1,127 1.72 20.8% 42.7% $489 $638 $740 0.59 16.0% 51.4%
Pennsylvania $371 $397 $419 0.64 5.5% 12.7% $672 $739 $832 0.66 12.6% 23.7%
Rhode Island $902 $1,122 $1,110 1.69 -1.1% 23.0% $199 $192 $188 0.15 -2.3% -5.8%
South Carolina $2,524 $2,132 $2,068 3.15 -3.0% -18.1% $2,464 $2,530 $2,400 1.91 -5.1% -2.6%
South Dakota $31 $35 $38 0.06 10.0% 22.2% $279 $262 $250 0.20 -4.4% -10.2%
Tennessee $3,299 $4,369 $4,747 7.23 8.7% 43.9% $2,744 $2,692 $2,796 2.22 3.9% 1.9%
Texas $127 $131 $123 0.19 -6.4% -3.1% $869 $865 $827 0.66 -4.4% -4.9%
Utah $90 $142 $190 0.29 34.0% 112.5% $293 $354 $335 0.27 -5.2% 14.5%
Vermont $941 $1,181 $1,530 2.33 29.5% 62.6% $420 $351 $379 0.30 7.9% -9.8%
Virginia $657 $1,200 $1,277 1.95 6.5% 94.4% $1,095 $1,322 $1,405 1.12 6.3% 28.4%
Washington $844 $1,084 $1,110 1.69 2.5% 31.6% $1,905 $2,514 $2,481 1.97 -1.3% 30.3%
West Virginia $1,117 $1,816 $1,898 2.89 4.5% 69.9% $1,652 $1,552 $1,498 1.19 -3.4% -9.3%
Wisconsin $551 $406 $504 0.77 24.0% -8.7% $752 $705 $664 0.53 -5.9% -11.8%
Wyoming $713 $501 $20 0.03 -96.1% -97.3% $2,280 $3,042 $2,811 2.23 -7.6% 23.3%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $1,262 $1,033 $809 0.64 -21.7% -35.9%
U.S. $629 $644 $656 1.00 1.9% 4.4% $1,108 $1,224 $1,259 1.00 2.8% 13.7%
Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. Sector-level state public financial aid excludes any financial aid that could not be categorized by sector.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 two- and four-year state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  6. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are classified as uncategorizable state support. Therefore, they are not included in sector-level financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
  7. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Financial Aid Share

Financial aid is one component of education appropriations. This section provides data on state public financial aid as a percentage of education appropriations (the financial aid allocation) by state and sector. 

The percentage of education appropriations allocated to state financial aid has increased over time. In 2001, 5.1% of education appropriations were directed toward student financial aid; by 2023, this proportion had increased to 9.5% (an increase of 4.4 percentage points).

1. State Comparisons

States vary considerably in how much of their total funding is allocated to student financial aid (Table 3.4). On the low end, Montana has a very small aid program that comprised only 0.6% of its total education appropriations. On the high end, the financial aid allocation accounted for 29.1% of South Carolina’s total funding for public higher education (Figure 3.4).

Financial aid as a percentage of education appropriations has increased in 41 states since 2001, when SHEEO first collected financial aid data. Of the nine states with declines in the proportion of education appropriations allocated to financial aid, Mississippi (0.05 percentage points) had the smallest decline while Michigan (3.7 percentage points) had the largest.

Table 3.4

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid as a Percentage of Education Appropriations by State, FY 2001-2023

2001 2008 2013 2018 2022 2023 Change Since 2022 Change Since 2018 Chance Since 2013 Change Since 2008 Chance Since 2001
Alabama 1.8% 2.3% 5.0% 8.8% 3.3% 2.0% -1.3 -6.8 -3.0 -0.3 0.2
Alaska 0.0% 0.2% 2.7% 5.1% 4.7% 4.0% -0.7 -1.1 1.3 3.8 4.0
Arizona 0.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.7% 1.8% 2.6% 0.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.3
Arkansas 6.3% 5.0% 17.6% 13.1% 12.5% 11.0% -1.6 -2.2 -6.6 6.0 4.6
California 4.1% 5.9% 11.7% 9.4% 9.0% 8.9% -0.1 -0.5 -2.8 3.0 4.8
Colorado 10.3% 13.8% 17.2% 17.4% 17.7% 20.2% 2.5 2.9 3.1 6.5 9.9
Connecticut 3.1% 3.4% 3.0% 3.3% 2.0% 2.2% 0.2 -1.1 -0.8 -1.2 -0.8
Delaware 5.1% 5.9% 6.8% 6.2% 5.7% 7.3% 1.6 1.1 0.5 1.4 2.2
Florida 8.1% 14.0% 14.7% 14.2% 16.5% 15.6% -0.9 1.4 0.9 1.6 7.5
Georgia 12.6% 16.6% 20.4% 20.6% 17.9% 18.3% 0.4 -2.4 -2.1 1.7 5.7
Hawaii 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 0.8% 1.3% 0.9% -0.4 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.8
Idaho 0.8% 2.1% 1.6% 2.7% 3.2% 2.9% -0.3 0.2 1.3 0.9 2.2
Illinois 7.4% 6.1% 4.5% 5.1% 4.8% 6.0% 1.2 0.9 1.5 -0.2 -1.4
Indiana 6.4% 11.7% 16.1% 19.2% 15.6% 15.2% -0.5 -4.0 -1.0 3.5 8.8
Iowa 0.5% 1.2% 2.3% 1.1% 4.6% 4.8% 0.2 3.7 2.5 3.6 4.4
Kansas 1.1% 1.6% 1.4% 1.4% 4.1% 3.9% -0.2 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.9
Kentucky 2.5% 11.0% 14.0% 18.1% 18.7% 21.3% 2.5 3.1 7.3 10.3 18.8
Louisiana 10.3% 10.5% 23.2% 34.0% 32.6% 28.2% -4.4 -5.8 5.0 17.7 17.9
Maine 4.2% 3.5% 3.7% 6.8% 7.0% 11.8% 4.8 4.9 8.1 8.3 7.6
Maryland 3.7% 5.6% 4.4% 4.3% 3.9% 3.5% -0.3 -0.8 -0.9 -2.1 -0.2
Massachusetts 5.5% 4.0% 5.1% 4.1% 5.8% 6.3% 0.5 2.2 1.2 2.3 0.9
Michigan 5.7% 6.4% 0.0% 0.4% 2.9% 2.0% -0.9 1.6 2.0 -4.4 -3.7
Minnesota 6.6% 6.8% 10.1% 9.0% 8.6% 9.4% 0.8 0.4 -0.6 2.7 2.8
Mississippi 5.0% 3.4% 3.9% 4.8% 5.4% 5.0% -0.4 0.2 1.1 1.6 0.0
Missouri 2.3% 4.4% 6.8% 8.9% 9.5% 11.8% 2.3 2.9 5.0 7.4 9.5
Montana 2.3% 2.8% 2.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.0 -0.1 -2.0 -2.2 -1.7
Nebraska 0.6% 1.4% 1.8% 2.1% 2.6% 2.5% -0.1 0.4 0.7 1.1 1.9
Nevada 9.8% 8.9% 14.1% 15.2% 15.4% 15.0% -0.4 -0.2 1.0 6.1 5.2
New Hampshire 0.7% 1.2% 0.0% 3.1% 4.0% 5.5% 1.6 2.4 5.5 4.3 4.8
New Jersey 8.2% 8.8% 12.1% 15.0% 15.9% 15.8% -0.1 0.8 3.7 7.0 7.6
New Mexico 8.2% 7.7% 10.8% 7.1% 9.1% 15.7% 6.6 8.6 4.9 7.9 7.5
New York 9.6% 9.6% 11.8% 11.9% 9.7% 8.3% -1.4 -3.6 -3.5 -1.3 -1.3
North Carolina 2.3% 3.4% 5.0% 4.0% 3.5% 4.3% 0.9 0.3 -0.6 0.9 2.1
North Dakota 0.7% 1.6% 4.9% 5.6% 6.3% 6.3% 0.0 0.6 1.3 4.6 5.6
Ohio 3.1% 6.5% 3.8% 3.9% 4.9% 5.0% 0.1 1.0 1.1 -1.5 1.9
Oklahoma 3.4% 9.1% 10.9% 13.0% 11.3% 11.6% 0.3 -1.4 0.7 2.6 8.3
Oregon 2.5% 6.0% 7.0% 9.0% 8.7% 10.4% 1.8 1.4 3.4 4.5 7.9
Pennsylvania 8.6% 11.6% 16.0% 12.6% 12.7% 12.2% -0.6 -0.5 -3.9 0.6 3.5
Rhode Island 1.9% 4.6% 5.9% 4.4% 6.3% 6.4% 0.0 2.0 0.5 1.8 4.5
South Carolina 6.1% 23.1% 35.5% 30.2% 31.2% 29.1% -2.1 -1.0 -6.4 6.0 23.0
South Dakota 0.1% 1.8% 2.4% 3.3% 2.7% 2.2% -0.5 -1.0 -0.1 0.5 2.2
Tennessee 3.1% 17.2% 25.2% 25.3% 26.2% 22.6% -3.6 -2.8 -2.7 5.3 19.4
Texas 0.2% 1.0% 3.6% 6.2% 6.1% 5.8% -0.3 -0.3 2.2 4.8 5.6
Utah 1.0% 1.8% 2.0% 2.3% 3.1% 2.8% -0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.7
Vermont 11.7% 13.6% 13.8% 15.3% 7.1% 9.7% 2.6 -5.6 -4.1 -3.9 -2.0
Virginia 5.3% 7.7% 11.6% 13.1% 14.5% 14.8% 0.3 1.7 3.2 7.1 9.5
Washington 8.0% 11.0% 22.6% 15.9% 17.3% 15.9% -1.3 0.1 -6.7 4.9 8.0
West Virginia 5.4% 15.3% 21.1% 26.0% 19.6% 19.9% 0.3 -6.1 -1.2 4.6 14.5
Wisconsin 3.6% 6.2% 7.5% 7.4% 6.1% 6.3% 0.2 -1.2 -1.2 0.0 2.7
Wyoming 7.9% 6.0% 7.1% 8.0% 9.7% 7.3% -2.4 -0.7 0.2 1.3 -0.6
D.C. N/A N/A 10.2% 6.7% 3.8% 3.2% -0.6 -3.5 -7.0 N/A N/A
U.S. 5.1% 7.1% 9.5% 9.7% 9.6% 9.5% -0.1 -0.2 0.0 2.4 4.4
Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. In several states, financial aid includes unawarded funds that were reverted back to the state.
  2. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Education appropriations include federal stimulus funding.
  3. Financial aid data are not available prior to 2001. Over time, states have shifted from reporting appropriated student financial aid to reporting actual/awarded student financial aid. Any such updates are made to all historical data for each state.
  4. Year change columns show percentage point increases or decreases, not percent change.
  5. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  6. Fiscal year 2023 state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  7. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  8. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are estimated and classified as uncategorizable state support, which is included in state-level education appropriations but not included in state financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Figure 3.4

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid as a Percentage of Education Appropriations by State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)


Share
Notes:
  1. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Education appropriations include federal stimulus funding.
  2. In fiscal year 2023, education appropriations include estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky and state public financial aid for Pennsylvania.
  3. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  4. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. In several states, financial aid may include unawarded funds that were reverted back to the state.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

The percentage of education appropriations allocated to financial aid differs for two- and four-year institutions (Table 3.4A). In fiscal year 2023, 6.3% of funding at two-year institutions went to financial aid, compared to 12.3% of funding at four-year institutions.

  • The financial aid allocation at two-year institutions ranged from 0.05% in Arizona to 32.9% in Tennessee. Including Arizona, seven states had a two-year financial aid allocation of less than 1%.
  • At four-year institutions, Michigan had the lowest financial aid allocation (0.3%), and Louisiana had the highest (37.7%). Hawai`i and Montana were the only other states that had a four-year financial aid allocation of less than 1%.

Figure 3.4A shows the difference in the financial aid allocation as a percentage of sector-level education appropriations between two- and four-year institutions. In states on the figure’s left side (the light blue bars), the financial aid allocation as a percentage of two-year education appropriations is highest in the two-year sector. Most states are on the right side of Figure 3.4A (the dark blue bars), indicating that in a majority of states, the mix of funding for four-year institutions leans more toward student aid than at two-year institutions.

Figure 3.4A

Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year State Financial Aid as a Percentage of Education Appropriations by State, FY 2023


Share
Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. Sector-level state public financial aid excludes any financial aid that could not be categorized by sector. Differences in aid amounts across sector capture variation in the proportion of students receiving an award as well as differences in average award size.
  2. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Sector-level education appropriations include any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector, but exclude state agency funding.
  3. Percentage point differences show the number of percentage points by which the student share is higher at either two- or four-year institutions, not the percent difference between the two.
  4. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  5. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  6. In fiscal year 2023, sector-level education appropriations include estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky and state public financial aid for Pennsylvania.
  7. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are estimated and classified as uncategorizable state support, which is not included in sector-level education appropriations, nor sector-level financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
  8. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 3.4A

Public Higher Education State Financial Aid as a Percentage of Education Appropriations by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023

Two-Year Financial Aid Share Four-Year Financial Aid Share
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average Change Since 2022 Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average Change Since 2022 Change Since 2019
Alabama 2.2% 1.2% 0.6% 0.10 -0.6 -1.6 7.2% 3.9% 2.5% 0.21 -1.3 -4.7
Alaska N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4.5% 4.7% 4.0% 0.32 -0.7 -0.6
Arizona 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.01 0.0 0.0 1.7% 4.3% 5.7% 0.46 1.4 4.0
Arkansas 3.5% 4.1% 4.4% 0.70 0.3 0.9 16.6% 15.8% 14.6% 1.19 -1.3 -2.0
California 8.1% 5.5% 5.5% 0.88 0.0 -2.6 10.8% 15.6% 15.2% 1.23 -0.4 4.4
Colorado 15.2% 13.9% 15.1% 2.42 1.2 -0.1 19.5% 19.2% 19.7% 1.60 0.4 0.1
Connecticut 3.5% 2.3% 3.8% 0.60 1.4 0.2 2.8% 2.2% 1.6% 0.13 -0.6 -1.2
Delaware 1.1% 1.0% 1.0% 0.16 0.0 -0.1 9.2% 7.7% 10.4% 0.85 2.7 1.2
Florida 10.0% 9.3% 8.8% 1.41 -0.5 -1.2 19.3% 19.7% 18.5% 1.51 -1.1 -0.8
Georgia 11.7% 9.4% 9.7% 1.55 0.2 -2.0 25.5% 20.8% 21.4% 1.74 0.6 -4.0
Hawaii 1.3% 2.8% 1.6% 0.26 -1.1 0.3 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.05 -0.1 -0.1
Idaho 3.7% 2.0% 2.6% 0.42 0.7 -1.1 4.1% 4.3% 4.2% 0.34 -0.1 0.0
Illinois 2.6% 2.9% 3.4% 0.54 0.5 0.7 6.2% 6.2% 7.5% 0.61 1.4 1.3
Indiana 11.1% 11.5% 10.9% 1.74 -0.7 -0.3 20.4% 18.1% 17.8% 1.45 -0.2 -2.6
Iowa 2.6% 9.5% 9.8% 1.56 0.2 7.2 1.0% 1.5% 1.7% 0.14 0.2 0.8
Kansas 0.2% 2.2% 2.1% 0.34 -0.1 1.9 3.2% 5.9% 5.6% 0.45 -0.4 2.4
Kentucky 25.0% 25.7% 28.1% 4.49 2.4 3.1 17.4% 17.2% 20.8% 1.69 3.7 3.4
Louisiana 11.8% 13.2% 12.6% 2.01 -0.6 0.7 41.1% 40.6% 37.7% 3.07 -2.9 -3.4
Maine 9.7% 9.6% 20.4% 3.26 10.8 10.7 5.9% 6.0% 7.5% 0.61 1.5 1.6
Maryland 1.0% 1.4% 1.1% 0.17 -0.4 0.0 5.2% 5.3% 4.9% 0.40 -0.5 -0.3
Massachusetts 5.6% 6.7% 6.9% 1.11 0.2 1.3 4.3% 5.5% 6.1% 0.50 0.6 1.9
Michigan 0.1% 7.1% 4.5% 0.73 -2.6 4.5 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.02 0.0 -0.1
Minnesota 7.8% 6.5% 7.1% 1.14 0.6 -0.7 11.7% 10.8% 11.5% 0.94 0.7 -0.2
Mississippi 2.1% 2.1% 2.0% 0.32 -0.1 -0.1 8.1% 8.2% 7.2% 0.58 -1.0 -0.9
Missouri 12.6% 13.5% 15.4% 2.46 1.9 2.7 7.6% 7.4% 9.7% 0.79 2.3 2.1
Montana 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 0.09 0.0 0.1 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 0.05 0.0 -0.1
Nebraska 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 0.29 0.0 0.0 2.5% 3.1% 3.1% 0.26 0.0 0.7
Nevada 8.8% 8.4% 6.8% 1.09 -1.5 -2.0 19.7% 19.2% 19.9% 1.62 0.7 0.2
New Hampshire 6.8% 5.3% 6.9% 1.10 1.6 0.1 1.6% 3.0% 4.5% 0.37 1.6 2.9
New Jersey 15.2% 15.0% 15.9% 2.53 0.8 0.6 18.7% 17.9% 17.1% 1.39 -0.7 -1.6
New Mexico 2.5% 3.3% 6.4% 1.03 3.1 3.9 11.1% 13.1% 21.3% 1.74 8.3 10.3
New York 12.2% 6.7% 6.2% 0.99 -0.5 -6.0 11.4% 11.0% 9.2% 0.75 -1.8 -2.2
North Carolina 1.3% 1.1% 1.0% 0.16 -0.1 -0.2 5.3% 4.9% 6.2% 0.51 1.3 0.9
North Dakota 6.0% 7.5% 7.9% 1.26 0.4 1.9 6.3% 6.8% 6.6% 0.54 -0.2 0.4
Ohio 0.5% 0.4% 0.8% 0.13 0.4 0.4 5.4% 5.9% 6.4% 0.52 0.5 1.0
Oklahoma 10.8% 7.8% 11.1% 1.77 3.3 0.3 15.3% 13.9% 13.1% 1.06 -0.8 -2.2
Oregon 9.8% 8.1% 9.9% 1.58 1.8 0.0 9.5% 9.7% 11.5% 0.93 1.8 2.0
Pennsylvania 6.0% 5.2% 5.4% 0.86 0.2 -0.7 11.9% 12.5% 11.8% 0.96 -0.7 -0.1
Rhode Island 14.9% 14.2% 14.6% 2.34 0.4 -0.3 3.6% 3.1% 3.0% 0.24 -0.1 -0.6
South Carolina 32.4% 28.0% 27.4% 4.38 -0.6 -4.9 38.4% 35.1% 31.5% 2.56 -3.6 -6.9
South Dakota 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.10 0.0 0.1 4.1% 3.6% 3.2% 0.26 -0.4 -0.9
Tennessee 32.6% 40.4% 32.9% 5.25 -7.5 0.3 23.6% 22.0% 20.7% 1.68 -1.3 -2.9
Texas 1.7% 1.5% 1.4% 0.22 -0.1 -0.3 11.7% 11.7% 11.8% 0.96 0.1 0.1
Utah 0.9% 1.2% 1.5% 0.24 0.3 0.7 3.3% 3.7% 3.2% 0.26 -0.5 -0.1
Vermont 31.2% 19.6% 29.8% 4.77 10.2 -1.4 13.5% 6.6% 7.5% 0.61 1.0 -6.0
Virginia 11.9% 17.5% 17.5% 2.80 0.0 5.6 15.0% 15.4% 15.0% 1.22 -0.4 0.1
Washington 11.4% 11.4% 10.8% 1.72 -0.6 -0.6 20.5% 23.1% 21.6% 1.76 -1.5 1.1
West Virginia 14.2% 16.9% 18.3% 2.93 1.4 4.1 28.2% 23.1% 22.4% 1.82 -0.7 -5.7
Wisconsin 4.1% 2.6% 3.4% 0.54 0.8 -0.7 12.0% 10.3% 9.9% 0.81 -0.3 -2.1
Wyoming 3.8% 3.4% 0.1% 0.02 -3.3 -3.6 10.8% 15.4% 13.1% 1.06 -2.3 2.3
D.C. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6.2% 3.8% 3.2% 0.26 -0.6 -3.0
U.S. 7.1% 6.2% 6.3% 1.00 0.0 -0.9 12.1% 12.5% 12.3% 1.00 -0.2 0.2
Notes:
  1. State public financial aid is any state appropriated student financial aid for public institutions, excluding loans and aid for students attending medical schools. For many states, it includes aid for both tuition costs and living expenses. Sector-level state public financial aid excludes any financial aid that could not be categorized by sector.
  2. Education appropriations are a measure of state and local support available for public higher education operating expenses and student financial aid, excluding appropriations for research, hospitals, and medical education. Sector-level education appropriations include any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector but exclude state agency funding.
  3. Year change columns show percentage point increases or decreases, not percent change.
  4. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  5. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  6. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  7. Fiscal year 2023 two- and four-year state public financial aid is estimated for Pennsylvania.
  8. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  9. In California, state funds for nontuition financial aid are estimated and classified as uncategorizable state support, which is not included in sector-level education appropriations, nor sector-level financial aid. See the California State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Net Tuition Revenue

Map 4.1

Net Tuition Revenue per FTE, FY 2023

Net tuition and fee revenue is calculated by taking the gross amount of tuition and fees net of state and institutional financial aid, tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees. Federal financial aid and student loans are included in net tuition and fee revenue.

After decades of steady tuition and fee increases, this trend has recently shifted; tuition and fee revenue has declined in four of the last five years. Public institutions received $7,353 in net tuition revenue from in-state and out-of-state students in 2023, down 3.3% from 2022, the largest one-year decrease since 1980, the start of the SHEF dataset. Collectively, net tuition and fee revenue is down 9.4% over the last five years (since 2018). Decreases in net tuition revenue are largely due to increases in state financial aid and minimal tuition rate growth (lower than the rate of inflation).

1. State Comparisons

Net tuition and fee revenue per FTE ranged widely across the states due to variation in the mix of students paying different tuition rates, the level of state support and availability of state public financial aid, and whether institutions can freely raise their tuition rates (Figure 4.1). On the low end, net tuition and fee revenue was $2,461 per FTE in Florida. On the high end, net tuition and fee revenue was $19,338 in Delaware. 

  • Table 4.1 shows that net tuition and fee revenue per FTE declined in 36 states between 2022 and 2023. Year-over-year declines ranged from 0.6% (or $66 per FTE) in Iowa to 39.6% in New Mexico (or $2,224 per FTE). 
  • Fourteen states and Washington, D.C., had net tuition and fee revenue increases from 2022 to 2023. Of those, increases ranged from 0.1% (or $10 per FTE) in Wisconsin to 12.7% (or $486 per FTE) in Wyoming.

Between 2018 and 2023, net tuition and fee revenue has declined in 37 states and Washington, D.C. Despite these recent declines, net tuition revenue per FTE has increased in every state, and by more than 100% in 42, since 1980. The smallest increase between 1980 and 2023 was 25.9% in Nevada; the largest increases, both more than 400%, were in Alabama (408.1%) and Hawai`i (403.2%).

Figure 4.1

Public Higher Education Net Tuition Revenue per FTE by State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)


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Notes:
  1. Net tuition revenue is calculated by taking the gross amount of tuition and fees, less state and institutional financial aid, tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  3. Fiscal year 2023 net tuition and fee revenue includes estimates for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  4. Constant 2023 dollars adjusted by the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA).
  5. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Enrollment Mix Index (EMI).
  6. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Cost of Living Index (COLI). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 4.1

Public Higher Education Net Tuition Revenue per FTE by State, FY 1980-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

1980 2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2018 % Change Since 2013 % Change Since 2001 % Change Since 1980
Alabama $2,964 $7,064 $13,395 $16,182 $15,840 $15,062 -4.9% -6.9% 12.4% 113.2% 408.1%
Alaska $2,629 $3,494 $5,119 $5,367 $5,458 $5,140 -5.8% -4.2% 0.4% 47.1% 95.5%
Arizona $2,398 $4,717 $7,949 $9,881 $9,269 $9,769 5.4% -1.1% 22.9% 107.1% 307.3%
Arkansas $3,242 $3,825 $5,835 $7,916 $7,776 $8,036 3.3% 1.5% 37.7% 110.1% 147.9%
California $753 $1,226 $3,261 $3,737 $2,850 $2,717 -4.7% -27.3% -16.7% 121.5% 261.0%
Colorado $3,574 $5,321 $9,714 $11,957 $12,284 $12,123 -1.3% 1.4% 24.8% 127.8% 239.2%
Connecticut $2,453 $5,994 $9,025 $12,397 $11,701 $9,067 -22.5% -26.9% 0.5% 51.3% 269.7%
Delaware $5,530 $12,244 $19,395 $20,639 $20,397 $19,338 -5.2% -6.3% -0.3% 57.9% 249.7%
Florida $1,921 $3,532 $4,121 $3,410 $2,619 $2,461 -6.0% -27.8% -40.3% -30.3% 28.1%
Georgia $2,365 $2,902 $5,864 $6,226 $5,631 $5,309 -5.7% -14.7% -9.5% 83.0% 124.4%
Hawaii $963 $2,509 $4,847 $5,176 $4,969 $4,846 -2.5% -6.4% 0.0% 93.1% 403.2%
Idaho $2,323 $4,489 $7,193 $8,835 $9,298 $8,912 -4.2% 0.9% 23.9% 98.5% 283.6%
Illinois $2,034 $3,593 $8,229 $9,564 $9,585 $8,896 -7.2% -7.0% 8.1% 147.6% 337.4%
Indiana $4,127 $7,588 $11,654 $11,763 $12,212 $11,768 -3.6% 0.0% 1.0% 55.1% 185.1%
Iowa $3,752 $6,868 $10,935 $11,742 $11,384 $11,319 -0.6% -3.6% 3.5% 64.8% 201.7%
Kansas $3,260 $4,887 $7,598 $8,207 $7,513 $7,344 -2.3% -10.5% -3.3% 50.3% 125.2%
Kentucky $3,044 $6,023 $10,658 $11,062 $10,406 $9,472 -9.0% -14.4% -11.1% 57.2% 211.1%
Louisiana $2,334 $3,238 $5,451 $6,242 $5,949 $6,034 1.4% -3.3% 10.7% 86.4% 158.6%
Maine $3,410 $6,289 $8,091 $7,436 $7,115 $6,122 -14.0% -17.7% -24.3% -2.7% 79.5%
Maryland $2,864 $6,341 $8,149 $8,444 $8,308 $8,028 -3.4% -4.9% -1.5% 26.6% 180.3%
Massachusetts $2,617 $4,867 $6,128 $6,956 $5,628 $5,636 0.1% -19.0% -8.0% 15.8% 115.4%
Michigan $4,789 $8,424 $14,699 $16,687 $16,441 $16,644 1.2% -0.3% 13.2% 97.6% 247.5%
Minnesota $2,654 $5,018 $10,715 $10,896 $10,815 $10,637 -1.6% -2.4% -0.7% 112.0% 300.9%
Mississippi $3,421 $4,687 $7,618 $8,787 $8,951 $8,787 -1.8% 0.0% 15.3% 87.5% 156.9%
Missouri $3,339 $5,371 $8,108 $7,752 $8,454 $8,838 4.5% 14.0% 9.0% 64.6% 164.7%
Montana $2,246 $4,959 $7,104 $7,821 $7,726 $7,878 2.0% 0.7% 10.9% 58.9% 250.7%
Nebraska $2,820 $4,776 $7,145 $7,848 $7,362 $7,034 -4.5% -10.4% -1.6% 47.3% 149.4%
Nevada $2,366 $3,046 $4,343 $4,314 $3,031 $2,980 -1.7% -30.9% -31.4% -2.2% 25.9%
New Hampshire $6,223 $10,908 $11,625 $11,030 $10,333 $9,961 -3.6% -9.7% -14.3% -8.7% 60.1%
New Jersey $2,198 $7,522 $9,610 $10,779 $8,171 $7,671 -6.1% -28.8% -20.2% 2.0% 249.1%
New Mexico $2,313 $1,743 $3,183 $4,437 $5,620 $3,395 -39.6% -23.5% 6.7% 94.8% 46.8%
New York $2,980 $4,860 $6,059 $6,529 $6,311 $6,457 2.3% -1.1% 6.6% 32.8% 116.7%
North Carolina $2,266 $3,472 $5,228 $6,288 $5,585 $5,301 -5.1% -15.7% 1.4% 52.7% 134.0%
North Dakota $2,690 $5,299 $8,900 $9,791 $10,718 $10,326 -3.7% 5.5% 16.0% 94.8% 283.9%
Ohio $4,543 $7,715 $11,100 $11,780 $10,127 $10,404 2.7% -11.7% -6.3% 34.9% 129.0%
Oklahoma $2,365 $3,172 $6,527 $8,612 $9,655 $9,738 0.9% 13.1% 49.2% 207.0% 311.7%
Oregon $2,671 $4,896 $7,915 $9,146 $9,959 $9,704 -2.6% 6.1% 22.6% 98.2% 263.3%
Pennsylvania $5,204 $10,485 $11,870 $12,851 $11,849 $11,264 -4.9% -12.3% -5.1% 7.4% 116.5%
Rhode Island $3,459 $7,714 $9,167 $9,705 $10,661 $9,991 -6.3% 3.0% 9.0% 29.5% 188.8%
South Carolina $2,605 $5,464 $9,885 $13,396 $11,529 $11,143 -3.3% -16.8% 12.7% 103.9% 327.7%
South Dakota $3,926 $7,313 $9,543 $9,848 $10,234 $9,745 -4.8% -1.0% 2.1% 33.3% 148.3%
Tennessee $2,919 $5,307 $7,912 $8,372 $7,420 $7,181 -3.2% -14.2% -9.2% 35.3% 146.0%
Texas $2,134 $5,582 $6,016 $8,411 $8,939 $7,985 -10.7% -5.1% 32.7% 43.0% 274.2%
Utah $2,753 $3,477 $6,529 $7,333 $7,398 $7,139 -3.5% -2.6% 9.3% 105.3% 159.3%
Vermont $8,337 $14,807 $17,322 $18,281 $16,411 $16,728 1.9% -8.5% -3.4% 13.0% 100.7%
Virginia $2,729 $5,099 $9,137 $9,889 $9,438 $9,134 -3.2% -7.6% 0.0% 79.1% 234.7%
Washington $2,495 $2,894 $6,232 $6,348 $6,571 $6,690 1.8% 5.4% 7.3% 131.2% 168.2%
West Virginia $2,126 $4,957 $7,494 $9,450 $8,938 $8,314 -7.0% -12.0% 10.9% 67.7% 291.0%
Wisconsin $4,150 $4,531 $7,261 $7,828 $7,912 $7,922 0.1% 1.2% 9.1% 74.9% 90.9%
Wyoming $2,762 $3,819 $3,116 $4,111 $3,822 $4,308 12.7% 4.8% 38.3% 12.8% 55.9%
D.C. N/A N/A $6,083 $7,306 $3,750 $4,115 9.7% -43.7% -32.4% N/A N/A
U.S. $2,629 $4,643 $7,245 $8,117 $7,606 $7,353 -3.3% -9.4% 1.5% 58.4% 179.6%
Notes:
  1. Net tuition revenue is calculated by taking the gross amount of tuition and fees, less state and institutional financial aid, tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  3. The years 1980 and 2001 are included in this table because they are the starting points of the historical SHEF dataset and modern SHEF data collection, respectively.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 net tuition and fee revenue includes estimates for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  5. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI), Enrollment Mix Index (EMI), and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

Table 4.1A presents new data on net tuition and fee revenue per FTE for the two- and four-year public sectors separately.

Net tuition and fee revenue at two-year institutions averaged $2,593 per FTE in 2023, down 6.6% ($183 per FTE) from 2022 and 15.9% ($491 per FTE) from 2019. In 2023, two-year net tuition ranged from a low of $289 per FTE in Tennessee to $7,198 per FTE in South Dakota.

In the last year, per-FTE tuition revenue decreased at two-year institutions in 39 states. Tennessee had the largest two-year tuition and fee revenue decline (61.3%) while Delaware had the smallest (0.8%). Of the 10 states with increases, Rhode Island has the smallest (0.4%) while Vermont had the largest (22.4%).

At four-year institutions, tuition revenue declined 2.7%, averaging $10,269 per FTE. This is still 4.0 times the average net tuition and fee revenue in the two-year sector. Florida had the lowest four-year tuition and fee revenue ($2,230 per FTE) while Delaware had the highest ($23,791 per FTE).

From 2022 to 2023, four-year net tuition revenue decreased in 33 states. The largest percent decline was 41.0% (or $3,311 per FTE) in New Mexico while Kansas had the smallest (0.6%, or $63 per FTE). Seventeen states and Washington, D.C., had one-year increases which ranged from 0.04% (or $7 per FTE) in Iowa to 15.4% (or $616 per FTE) in Wyoming. 

Figure 4.1A displays the disparity in net tuition revenue per FTE between each state’s two- and four-year public sectors. On average, four-year institutions received 119.4% more tuition and fee revenue than two-year institutions. Only Florida is on the figure’s left side (the light blue bar), with 23.3% higher per-FTE net tuition and fee revenue in the two-year sector. All other states are on the figure’s right side (the dark blue bars), with relatively higher net tuition revenue per FTE in the four-year sector. Tennessee had the largest disparity in net tuition revenue across sectors, with 189.5% higher net tuition and fee revenue in the four-year sector.

Figure 4.1A

Percent Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year Public Higher Education Net Tuition Revenue per FTE by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Net tuition revenue is calculated by taking the gross amount of tuition and fees, less state and institutional financial aid, tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees.
  2. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level net tuition and fee revenue includes estimates for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 4.1A

Public Higher Education Net Tuition Revenue per FTE by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

Two-Year Tuition Revenue Four-Year Tuition Revenue
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019
Alabama $6,219 $6,093 $5,619 2.17 -7.8% -9.6% $20,113 $20,044 $19,272 1.88 -3.9% -4.2%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $5,301 $5,312 $5,008 0.49 -5.7% -5.5%
Arizona $2,361 $2,229 $2,289 0.88 2.7% -3.0% $14,896 $12,391 $13,205 1.29 6.6% -11.4%
Arkansas $5,063 $4,837 $4,727 1.82 -2.3% -6.6% $9,130 $8,906 $9,289 0.90 4.3% 1.7%
California $636 $467 $459 0.18 -1.7% -27.8% $7,199 $5,933 $5,626 0.55 -5.2% -21.8%
Colorado $4,875 $3,981 $3,632 1.40 -8.8% -25.5% $15,793 $16,795 $16,888 1.64 0.6% 6.9%
Connecticut $6,300 $5,755 $5,116 1.97 -11.1% -18.8% $15,429 $14,045 $10,340 1.01 -26.4% -33.0%
Delaware $6,482 $5,646 $5,599 2.16 -0.8% -13.6% $26,653 $25,656 $23,791 2.32 -7.3% -10.7%
Florida $3,109 $2,844 $2,820 1.09 -0.9% -9.3% $3,007 $2,515 $2,230 0.22 -11.3% -25.8%
Georgia $3,523 $3,434 $3,333 1.29 -2.9% -5.4% $6,760 $6,297 $5,925 0.58 -5.9% -12.4%
Hawaii $2,781 $2,347 $2,460 0.95 4.8% -11.6% $6,982 $6,675 $6,363 0.62 -4.7% -8.9%
Idaho $3,428 $3,355 $3,208 1.24 -4.4% -6.4% $9,979 $11,270 $10,782 1.05 -4.3% 8.0%
Illinois $6,073 $6,238 $5,863 2.26 -6.0% -3.5% $12,074 $11,779 $10,831 1.05 -8.0% -10.3%
Indiana $3,990 $3,402 $3,277 1.26 -3.7% -17.9% $14,622 $15,272 $14,912 1.45 -2.4% 2.0%
Iowa $6,440 $6,064 $5,973 2.30 -1.5% -7.3% $16,264 $15,911 $15,918 1.55 0.0% -2.1%
Kansas $3,369 $3,373 $3,054 1.18 -9.5% -9.4% $11,715 $10,113 $10,051 0.98 -0.6% -14.2%
Kentucky $5,345 $5,006 $4,315 1.66 -13.8% -19.3% $13,375 $12,707 $11,737 1.14 -7.6% -12.3%
Louisiana $4,534 $4,841 $4,083 1.57 -15.7% -10.0% $6,921 $6,299 $6,698 0.65 6.3% -3.2%
Maine $3,303 $2,661 $1,340 0.52 -49.6% -59.4% $9,348 $8,917 $8,482 0.83 -4.9% -9.3%
Maryland $4,335 $4,128 $3,926 1.51 -4.9% -9.4% $11,175 $10,252 $9,989 0.97 -2.6% -10.6%
Massachusetts $3,558 $3,086 $2,876 1.11 -6.8% -19.2% $7,334 $6,469 $6,538 0.64 1.1% -10.8%
Michigan $7,189 $6,119 $6,357 2.45 3.9% -11.6% $21,318 $21,052 $21,202 2.06 0.7% -0.5%
Minnesota $5,744 $5,571 $5,503 2.12 -1.2% -4.2% $14,180 $14,096 $13,910 1.35 -1.3% -1.9%
Mississippi $5,269 $5,371 $5,250 2.03 -2.3% -0.4% $12,020 $11,784 $11,584 1.13 -1.7% -3.6%
Missouri $3,329 $4,005 $4,212 1.62 5.2% 26.5% $10,450 $10,148 $10,583 1.03 4.3% 1.3%
Montana $1,956 $1,752 $1,628 0.63 -7.1% -16.8% $9,883 $9,561 $9,829 0.96 2.8% -0.6%
Nebraska $3,218 $2,885 $2,779 1.07 -3.7% -13.6% $10,311 $9,444 $9,094 0.89 -3.7% -11.8%
Nevada $2,003 $1,898 $1,911 0.74 0.7% -4.6% $3,500 $3,859 $3,767 0.37 -2.4% 7.6%
New Hampshire $5,772 $5,240 $5,014 1.93 -4.3% -13.1% $13,591 $12,512 $12,073 1.18 -3.5% -11.2%
New Jersey $3,258 $3,305 $2,783 1.07 -15.8% -14.6% $11,139 $10,616 $10,216 0.99 -3.8% -8.3%
New Mexico $2,177 $2,171 $1,470 0.57 -32.3% -32.5% $4,650 $8,084 $4,773 0.46 -41.0% 2.6%
New York $4,712 $5,098 $5,192 2.00 1.8% 10.2% $7,707 $6,832 $7,011 0.68 2.6% -9.0%
North Carolina $2,125 $1,868 $1,745 0.67 -6.6% -17.9% $9,239 $8,356 $8,102 0.79 -3.0% -12.3%
North Dakota $4,212 $4,029 $3,689 1.42 -8.4% -12.4% $11,630 $12,714 $12,373 1.20 -2.7% 6.4%
Ohio $4,418 $3,397 $3,446 1.33 1.4% -22.0% $13,065 $13,268 $13,352 1.30 0.6% 2.2%
Oklahoma $4,614 $4,230 $3,695 1.43 -12.7% -19.9% $11,314 $12,123 $12,420 1.21 2.4% 9.8%
Oregon $3,516 $3,327 $2,869 1.11 -13.8% -18.4% $13,111 $14,076 $13,862 1.35 -1.5% 5.7%
Pennsylvania $5,094 $4,571 $4,349 1.68 -4.9% -14.6% $15,839 $14,409 $13,719 1.34 -4.8% -13.4%
Rhode Island $5,486 $5,788 $5,813 2.24 0.4% 6.0% $10,064 $11,803 $10,979 1.07 -7.0% 9.1%
South Carolina $3,853 $3,583 $2,789 1.08 -22.2% -27.6% $17,140 $15,734 $15,750 1.53 0.1% -8.1%
South Dakota $4,048 $7,551 $7,198 2.78 -4.7% 77.8% $11,314 $10,485 $9,987 0.97 -4.7% -11.7%
Tennessee $2,124 $747 $289 0.11 -61.3% -86.4% $11,715 $11,123 $10,731 1.04 -3.5% -8.4%
Texas $2,483 $2,528 $1,974 0.76 -21.9% -20.5% $13,379 $13,742 $12,586 1.23 -8.4% -5.9%
Utah $3,342 $3,621 $3,125 1.21 -13.7% -6.5% $8,342 $8,460 $8,252 0.80 -2.5% -1.1%
Vermont $6,826 $4,544 $5,563 2.15 22.4% -18.5% $19,620 $17,763 $17,967 1.75 1.2% -8.4%
Virginia $4,496 $3,521 $3,196 1.23 -9.2% -28.9% $13,099 $12,365 $12,008 1.17 -2.9% -8.3%
Washington $2,764 $2,406 $1,933 0.75 -19.6% -30.1% $9,824 $10,755 $11,668 1.14 8.5% 18.8%
West Virginia $4,564 $4,169 $3,926 1.51 -5.8% -14.0% $10,244 $10,025 $9,346 0.91 -6.8% -8.8%
Wisconsin $3,301 $2,741 $2,524 0.97 -7.9% -23.5% $10,251 $10,153 $10,338 1.01 1.8% 0.9%
Wyoming $2,977 $3,347 $3,692 1.42 10.3% 24.0% $5,332 $4,009 $4,625 0.45 15.4% -13.3%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $6,585 $3,626 $3,978 0.39 9.7% -39.6%
U.S. $3,084 $2,776 $2,593 1.00 -6.6% -15.9% $11,057 $10,555 $10,269 1.00 -2.7% -7.1%
Notes:
  1. Net tuition revenue is calculated by taking the gross amount of tuition and fees, less state and institutional financial aid, tuition waivers or discounts, and medical student tuition and fees.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 two- and four-year net tuition and fee revenue is estimated for Arkansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and two-year net tuition and fee revenue is estimated for Massachusetts.
  6. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Total Education Revenue

Map 4.2

Total Education Revenue per FTE, FY 2023

Total education revenue is the sum of education appropriations and net tuition, excluding net tuition revenue used for capital debt service.

Total education revenue increased 0.8% from 2022 to 2023, reaching an all-time high of $18,301 per FTE. Total education revenue has increased in nine of the last 10 years (except 2019) following declines during the Great Recession and has increased 14.4% since 2001 and 45.5% since the start of the SHEF dataset in 1980.

Record high total revenue does not mean that all public institutions have more revenue than ever before. Following declines in state funding after the last two recessions, institutions varied widely in their ability to increase tuition revenue (either by increasing rates or out-of-state enrollment). Total education revenue is at an all-time high in only 13 states. Many institutions, particularly those most reliant on state funding and those with a more limited ability to raise tuition rates and attract out-of-state and international students, have not been able to increase tuition revenue to offset declines in state funding and are not at an all-time high for total education revenue. 32 32State Higher Education Executive Officers Association. (2021). Investigating the impacts of state higher education appropriations and financial aid. https://sheeo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/SHEEO_ImpactAppropationsFinancialAid.pdf VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Excluding federal stimulus funding that states allocated directly to public higher education, total education revenue increased 1.1% from 2022 to 2023. Had enrollment held constant and states not allocated federal stimulus funding to higher education, total education revenue per FTE would have increased only 0.6% from 2022, but decreased 2.3% from 2020.

1. State Comparisons

In fiscal year 2023, total education revenue per FTE ranged from a low of $11,570 in Nevada to a high of $31,076 in Illinois (Figure 4.2). 33 33Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

  • Public institutions in 14 states and Washington, D.C., had more than $20,000 per FTE in education revenue. Of these states, education revenues came mainly from tuition and fees in Delaware, Michigan, and Vermont. Education revenues came from mixed sources in Alabama and Minnesota, while revenues primarily came from education appropriations in the other nine states and Washington, D.C.
  • Total education revenue per FTE decreased in half of all states and Washington, D.C., from 2022 to 2023 (Table 4.2). Declines ranged from 0.6% (or $122 per FTE) in Nebraska to 12.2% (or $3,338 per FTE) in Connecticut. 
  • Total education revenue increased in the other half of all states in 2023. Year-over-year increases ranged from 0.3% (or $62 per FTE) in Virginia to 18.2% (or $4,412 per FTE) in Alabama. 
  • Since 1980, inflation-adjusted total education revenue per FTE declined in only two states, Alaska (9.8%) and Nevada (7.2%).

Figure 4.2

Public Higher Education Total Education Revenue per FTE by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Total education revenue is the sum of education appropriations and net tuition, excluding net tuition revenue used for capital debt service. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  3. Fiscal year 2023 total education revenue includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky and estimated net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  4. Constant 2023 dollars adjusted by the Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA).
  5. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Enrollment Mix Index (EMI).
  6. Adjusted to account for interstate differences using the Cost of Living Index (COLI). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 4.2

Public Higher Education Total Education Revenue per FTE by State, FY 1980-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

1980 2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2018 % Change Since 2013 % Change Since 2001 % Change Since 1980
Alabama $11,119 $16,648 $19,884 $22,924 $24,280 $28,692 18.2% 25.2% 44.3% 72.3% 158.0%
Alaska $28,059 $19,182 $22,593 $22,589 $24,642 $25,300 2.7% 12.0% 12.0% 31.9% -9.8%
Arizona $11,284 $14,373 $14,449 $15,968 $15,290 $16,419 7.4% 2.8% 13.6% 14.2% 45.5%
Arkansas $13,786 $15,082 $14,359 $15,989 $17,040 $16,846 -1.1% 5.4% 17.3% 11.7% 22.2%
California $9,986 $11,350 $10,826 $13,272 $14,258 $14,518 1.8% 9.4% 34.1% 27.9% 45.4%
Colorado $9,757 $12,798 $13,468 $16,948 $19,340 $18,726 -3.2% 10.5% 39.0% 46.3% 91.9%
Connecticut $11,454 $23,626 $20,310 $22,944 $27,268 $23,929 -12.2% 4.3% 17.8% 1.3% 108.9%
Delaware $14,593 $22,717 $26,376 $27,330 $28,519 $25,937 -9.1% -5.1% -1.7% 14.2% 77.7%
Florida $9,551 $15,084 $10,129 $12,212 $12,368 $12,490 1.0% 2.3% 23.3% -17.2% 30.8%
Georgia $12,968 $19,226 $15,115 $17,612 $19,990 $19,220 -3.9% 9.1% 27.2% 0.0% 48.2%
Hawaii $11,286 $12,832 $14,437 $18,971 $19,689 $21,378 8.6% 12.7% 48.1% 66.6% 89.4%
Idaho $16,089 $19,128 $15,707 $19,799 $19,882 $21,056 5.9% 6.3% 34.1% 10.1% 30.9%
Illinois $12,401 $19,284 $25,066 $27,403 $32,431 $31,076 -4.2% 13.4% 24.0% 61.1% 150.6%
Indiana $14,952 $18,316 $18,530 $18,969 $19,512 $18,717 -4.1% -1.3% 1.0% 2.2% 25.2%
Iowa $15,319 $19,517 $18,241 $18,182 $18,512 $18,299 -1.2% 0.6% 0.3% -6.2% 19.5%
Kansas $14,074 $17,205 $15,527 $15,887 $16,610 $17,098 2.9% 7.6% 10.1% -0.6% 21.5%
Kentucky $14,745 $20,229 $19,661 $19,543 $19,661 $19,441 -1.1% -0.5% -1.1% -3.9% 31.8%
Louisiana $12,599 $12,301 $12,458 $13,067 $13,415 $13,662 1.8% 4.6% 9.7% 11.1% 8.4%
Maine $10,614 $16,916 $15,246 $15,515 $15,778 $15,575 -1.3% 0.4% 2.2% -7.9% 46.7%
Maryland $10,861 $17,067 $15,572 $17,202 $18,110 $19,480 7.6% 13.2% 25.1% 14.1% 79.4%
Massachusetts $11,463 $16,788 $13,274 $15,788 $16,214 $17,608 8.6% 11.5% 32.7% 4.9% 53.6%
Michigan $16,136 $22,319 $21,857 $25,010 $27,034 $27,134 0.4% 8.5% 24.1% 21.6% 68.2%
Minnesota $14,387 $16,892 $17,366 $19,939 $20,901 $20,355 -2.6% 2.1% 17.2% 20.5% 41.5%
Mississippi $13,269 $16,664 $15,809 $16,262 $16,914 $17,945 6.1% 10.4% 13.5% 7.7% 35.2%
Missouri $15,181 $19,532 $16,153 $16,022 $20,191 $18,526 -8.2% 15.6% 14.7% -5.2% 22.0%
Montana $10,799 $11,546 $12,780 $14,271 $14,831 $15,091 1.8% 5.7% 18.1% 30.7% 39.7%
Nebraska $12,657 $14,556 $16,982 $19,000 $19,887 $19,765 -0.6% 4.0% 16.4% 35.8% 56.2%
Nevada $12,468 $13,624 $13,115 $13,185 $11,735 $11,570 -1.4% -12.2% -11.8% -15.1% -7.2%
New Hampshire $11,452 $16,688 $13,691 $14,148 $14,364 $13,951 -2.9% -1.4% 1.9% -16.4% 21.8%
New Jersey $11,055 $19,472 $18,032 $18,810 $17,457 $17,306 -0.9% -8.0% -4.0% -11.1% 56.5%
New Mexico $14,331 $13,923 $14,432 $17,808 $24,176 $25,348 4.8% 42.3% 75.6% 82.1% 76.9%
New York $15,201 $16,387 $16,965 $19,514 $20,218 $21,272 5.2% 9.0% 25.4% 29.8% 39.9%
North Carolina $13,768 $18,329 $16,839 $18,293 $18,498 $18,262 -1.3% -0.2% 8.5% -0.4% 32.6%
North Dakota $11,904 $13,118 $17,947 $18,721 $20,016 $19,139 -4.4% 2.2% 6.6% 45.9% 60.8%
Ohio $13,833 $18,858 $17,410 $19,381 $17,653 $18,073 2.4% -6.8% 3.8% -4.2% 30.7%
Oklahoma $11,949 $14,871 $15,650 $16,637 $17,804 $18,238 2.4% 9.6% 16.5% 22.6% 52.6%
Oregon $10,769 $13,651 $12,715 $15,192 $18,530 $18,115 -2.2% 19.2% 42.5% 32.7% 68.2%
Pennsylvania $16,244 $21,519 $17,049 $18,175 $18,303 $18,592 1.6% 2.3% 9.0% -13.6% 14.5%
Rhode Island $14,788 $17,516 $14,425 $15,857 $17,611 $16,891 -4.1% 6.5% 17.1% -3.6% 14.2%
South Carolina $13,449 $14,329 $14,960 $19,369 $18,444 $18,203 -1.3% -6.0% 21.7% 27.0% 35.4%
South Dakota $14,302 $15,889 $15,802 $16,642 $17,676 $18,599 5.2% 11.8% 17.7% 17.1% 30.0%
Tennessee $12,953 $15,808 $16,463 $19,108 $19,753 $22,316 13.0% 16.8% 35.6% 41.2% 72.3%
Texas $11,478 $16,423 $14,777 $17,556 $19,305 $18,320 -5.1% 4.4% 24.0% 11.6% 59.6%
Utah $13,819 $13,065 $13,528 $16,189 $17,450 $18,094 3.7% 11.8% 33.8% 38.5% 30.9%
Vermont $13,384 $19,279 $20,233 $20,795 $22,396 $21,705 -3.1% 4.4% 7.3% 12.6% 62.2%
Virginia $11,343 $15,808 $15,000 $16,562 $18,090 $18,152 0.3% 9.6% 21.0% 14.8% 60.0%
Washington $12,270 $12,286 $12,478 $14,516 $17,018 $17,924 5.3% 23.5% 43.6% 45.9% 46.1%
West Virginia $11,173 $12,636 $13,659 $14,361 $15,899 $14,788 -7.0% 3.0% 8.3% 17.0% 32.4%
Wisconsin $15,786 $17,527 $16,506 $16,919 $17,988 $17,736 -1.4% 4.8% 7.5% 1.2% 12.4%
Wyoming $19,718 $17,651 $22,795 $23,533 $21,801 $22,801 4.6% -3.1% 0.0% 29.2% 15.6%
D.C. N/A N/A $25,089 $26,296 $31,941 $29,949 -6.2% 13.9% 19.4% N/A N/A
U.S. $12,579 $16,001 $15,238 $17,189 $18,164 $18,301 0.8% 6.5% 20.1% 14.4% 45.5%
Notes:
  1. Total education revenue is the sum of education appropriations and net tuition, excluding net tuition revenue used for capital debt service. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  3. The years 1980 and 2001 are included in this table because they are the starting points of the historical SHEF dataset and modern SHEF data collection, respectively.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 total education revenue includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky and estimated net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  5. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system (see the Illinois State Spotlight for more details).
  6. Texas developed a new methodology to capture state funding to institutions of higher education and updated FTE enrollment starting in 2017. Years prior to 2017 do not reflect this new methodology, which may affect some year-to-year comparisons.
  7. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI), Enrollment Mix Index (EMI), and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

Table 4.2A presents new data on total education revenue per FTE for the two- and four-year public sectors separately.

At two-year public institutions, total education revenue averaged $13,061 per FTE, down 0.1% from 2022. Total revenue ranged from $8,074 in Montana to $25,420 in Alabama. 34 34The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is, at least, in part due to a one-time supplemental appropriation. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES  

Two-year total education revenue declined in 29 states from 2022 to 2023. Decreases ranged from 0.2% (or $30 per FTE) in Delaware to 16.8% (or $3,280 per FTE) in New Mexico. Of the 20 states with increases, year-over-year percent changes ranged from 1.0% (or $144 per FTE) in Maryland to 53.7% ($8,883 per FTE) in Alabama. The large increase in Alabama is an outlier, as the change is 26.3 percentage points higher than in Tennessee (27.4%), which had the second largest increase. 35 35The large increase in fiscal year 2023 education appropriations for Alabama is, at least, in part due to a one-time supplemental appropriation. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES  

Total education revenue at four-year institutions averaged $20,373 in 2023, a 0.6% increase from 2022. Four-year institutions had, on average, 1.6 times the amount of total revenue per FTE of two-year institutions. Nevada had the lowest revenue of $12,826 per FTE. While more than half of all states and Washington, D.C., had total revenue greater than $20,000, Illinois had the largest total revenue of $34,343 per FTE. 36 36Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES

Between 2022 and 2023, four-year total education revenue decreased in 22 states and Washington, D.C. Declines ranged from 0.05% (or $8 per FTE) in South Dakota to 19.9% (or $5,553 per FTE) in Connecticut.

Figure 4.2A displays the disparity in total education revenue per FTE between each state’s two-year and four-year public sectors. Connecticut (4.7%) and Wisconsin (2.1%) 37 37Wisconsin has 16 technical colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS). There are several nuances that must be considered when comparing total education revenue for two- and four-year institutions in Wisconsin. This primarily includes, but is not limited to, technical education programs requiring costly equipment and smaller class sizes. Additionally, like many other two-year colleges, WTCS institutions educate a large number of part-time students. For a more detailed description of contextual factors related to total education revenue and per student spending at WTCS institutions, see this 2024 report by the Wisconsin Policy Forum. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES are the only states on the figure’s left side (the light blue bars), meaning they had a higher total education revenue in the two-year sector in 2023. All other states are on the figure’s right side (the dark blue bars), with relatively higher total education revenue per FTE in the four-year sector. New Jersey had the largest disparity in total education revenue across sectors, where four-year institutions had 2.5 times the total revenue of two-year institutions.

Figure 4.2A

Percent Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year Public Higher Education Total Education Revenue per FTE by State, FY 2023


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Notes:
  1. Total education revenue is the sum of education appropriations and net tuition, excluding net tuition revenue used for capital debt service. Sector-level total education revenue includes any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector.
  2. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level total education revenue includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky, estimated two- and four-year public financial aid for Pennsylvania, estimated two- and four-year net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and estimated two-year net tuition and fee revenue for Massachusetts.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Table 4.2A

Public Higher Education Total Education Revenue per FTE by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

Two-Year Total Revenue Four-Year Total Revenue
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average % Change Since 2022 % Change Since 2019
Alabama $13,840 $16,537 $25,420 1.95 53.7% 83.7% $26,834 $27,707 $30,554 1.50 10.3% 13.9%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $22,878 $23,959 $24,598 1.21 2.7% 7.5%
Arizona $13,255 $15,553 $15,230 1.17 -2.1% 14.9% $18,280 $15,520 $17,298 0.85 11.5% -5.4%
Arkansas $13,501 $14,346 $14,145 1.08 -1.4% 4.8% $17,002 $17,600 $16,767 0.82 -4.7% -1.4%
California $10,209 $11,066 $10,752 0.82 -2.8% 5.3% $16,566 $16,033 $16,444 0.81 2.6% -0.7%
Colorado $11,697 $12,347 $11,276 0.86 -8.7% -3.6% $20,480 $22,310 $22,885 1.12 2.6% 11.7%
Connecticut $16,271 $20,726 $23,446 1.80 13.1% 44.1% $26,418 $27,927 $22,374 1.10 -19.9% -15.3%
Delaware $16,622 $17,825 $17,795 1.36 -0.2% 7.1% $32,614 $33,025 $29,295 1.44 -11.3% -10.2%
Florida $8,510 $9,006 $9,233 0.71 2.5% 8.5% $16,409 $15,776 $15,880 0.78 0.7% -3.2%
Georgia $11,392 $13,178 $13,023 1.00 -1.2% 14.3% $18,363 $20,918 $20,019 0.98 -4.3% 9.0%
Hawaii $14,496 $15,748 $17,733 1.36 12.6% 22.3% $21,685 $19,642 $21,120 1.04 7.5% -2.6%
Idaho $9,657 $10,108 $10,276 0.79 1.7% 6.4% $20,357 $20,475 $20,366 1.00 -0.5% 0.0%
Illinois $19,993 $23,836 $24,338 1.86 2.1% 21.7% $33,153 $35,570 $34,343 1.69 -3.4% 3.6%
Indiana $10,421 $9,992 $9,274 0.71 -7.2% -11.0% $22,237 $22,313 $21,644 1.06 -3.0% -2.7%
Iowa $11,737 $12,448 $12,188 0.93 -2.1% 3.8% $23,893 $23,778 $23,639 1.16 -0.6% -1.1%
Kansas $13,295 $15,212 $15,065 1.15 -1.0% 13.3% $18,595 $17,435 $18,323 0.90 5.1% -1.5%
Kentucky $11,993 $12,255 $11,952 0.92 -2.5% -0.3% $22,137 $22,542 $21,905 1.08 -2.8% -1.0%
Louisiana $8,696 $9,833 $8,992 0.69 -8.5% 3.4% $14,126 $13,667 $13,784 0.68 0.9% -2.4%
Maine $11,623 $12,254 $11,449 0.88 -6.6% -1.5% $17,548 $17,561 $17,978 0.88 2.4% 2.5%
Maryland $12,932 $15,020 $15,164 1.16 1.0% 17.3% $20,233 $19,345 $21,218 1.04 9.7% 4.9%
Massachusetts $11,056 $13,267 $15,188 1.16 14.5% 37.4% $16,706 $16,918 $18,078 0.89 6.9% 8.2%
Michigan $18,242 $19,925 $21,079 1.61 5.8% 15.5% $28,674 $30,401 $29,594 1.45 -2.7% 3.2%
Minnesota $13,239 $14,468 $14,166 1.08 -2.1% 7.0% $23,194 $23,730 $23,470 1.15 -1.1% 1.2%
Mississippi $12,326 $13,250 $13,592 1.04 2.6% 10.3% $19,518 $19,602 $21,113 1.04 7.7% 8.2%
Missouri $10,966 $17,380 $16,371 1.25 -5.8% 49.3% $18,836 $20,919 $18,980 0.93 -9.3% 0.8%
Montana $8,152 $8,671 $8,074 0.62 -6.9% -1.0% $16,911 $17,046 $17,540 0.86 2.9% 3.7%
Nebraska $15,865 $18,231 $17,090 1.31 -6.3% 7.7% $20,817 $20,660 $20,346 1.00 -1.5% -2.3%
Nevada $8,841 $8,919 $9,698 0.74 8.7% 9.7% $13,567 $13,547 $12,826 0.63 -5.3% -5.5%
New Hampshire $10,939 $12,455 $12,261 0.94 -1.6% 12.1% $16,201 $15,714 $15,207 0.75 -3.2% -6.1%
New Jersey $7,899 $8,840 $8,270 0.63 -6.4% 4.7% $19,703 $20,296 $20,495 1.01 1.0% 4.0%
New Mexico $13,755 $19,561 $16,281 1.25 -16.8% 18.4% $22,599 $26,999 $28,995 1.42 7.4% 28.3%
New York $14,762 $16,840 $17,190 1.32 2.1% 16.5% $22,794 $21,442 $22,846 1.12 6.5% 0.2%
North Carolina $11,323 $11,869 $11,269 0.86 -5.1% -0.5% $23,387 $22,644 $23,130 1.14 2.1% -1.1%
North Dakota $12,320 $12,785 $11,769 0.90 -7.9% -4.5% $19,988 $21,297 $20,578 1.01 -3.4% 3.0%
Ohio $13,184 $10,878 $11,565 0.89 6.3% -12.3% $19,979 $20,678 $20,758 1.02 0.4% 3.9%
Oklahoma $11,357 $11,723 $11,888 0.91 1.4% 4.7% $19,077 $19,728 $20,232 0.99 2.6% 6.1%
Oregon $11,538 $14,816 $14,269 1.09 -3.7% 23.7% $18,273 $20,681 $20,312 1.00 -1.8% 11.2%
Pennsylvania $11,238 $12,176 $12,145 0.93 -0.3% 8.1% $21,479 $20,304 $20,739 1.02 2.1% -3.4%
Rhode Island $11,522 $13,680 $13,388 1.03 -2.1% 16.2% $15,647 $18,039 $17,243 0.85 -4.4% 10.2%
South Carolina $11,233 $11,100 $10,251 0.78 -7.6% -8.7% $22,109 $21,993 $22,378 1.10 1.7% 1.2%
South Dakota $9,527 $11,857 $12,133 0.93 2.3% 27.4% $17,472 $17,115 $17,107 0.84 0.0% -2.1%
Tennessee $12,242 $11,551 $14,718 1.13 27.4% 20.2% $22,844 $22,903 $23,811 1.17 4.0% 4.2%
Texas $10,043 $11,503 $11,060 0.85 -3.9% 10.1% $20,783 $21,128 $19,591 0.96 -7.3% -5.7%
Utah $13,803 $15,071 $15,747 1.21 4.5% 14.1% $17,352 $18,059 $18,754 0.92 3.9% 8.1%
Vermont $9,840 $10,577 $10,694 0.82 1.1% 8.7% $21,935 $22,307 $22,246 1.09 -0.3% 1.4%
Virginia $9,968 $10,336 $10,454 0.80 1.1% 4.9% $20,280 $20,831 $21,243 1.04 2.0% 4.8%
Washington $10,192 $11,952 $12,230 0.94 2.3% 20.0% $19,107 $21,633 $23,166 1.14 7.1% 21.2%
West Virginia $12,230 $14,803 $14,205 1.09 -4.0% 16.1% $15,020 $15,592 $14,613 0.72 -6.3% -2.7%
Wisconsin $16,711 $18,151 $17,386 1.33 -4.2% 4.0% $16,498 $17,030 $17,031 0.84 0.0% 3.2%
Wyoming $21,818 $18,097 $17,599 1.35 -2.8% -19.3% $26,342 $23,668 $26,072 1.28 10.2% -1.0%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A N/A N/A $26,814 $30,621 $28,953 1.42 -5.4% 8.0%
U.S. $11,884 $13,076 $13,061 1.00 -0.1% 9.9% $20,085 $20,244 $20,373 1.00 0.6% 1.4%
Notes:
  1. Total education revenue is the sum of education appropriations and net tuition, excluding net tuition revenue used for capital debt service. Sector-level total education revenue includes any portion of federal stimulus funding allocated specifically to each sector.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level total education revenue includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky and estimated two- and four-year net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  6. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  7. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Student Share

Map 4.3

Student Share, FY 2023

Net tuition as a percentage of total education revenue (the student share) shows the overall reliance of public institutions on tuition as a revenue source. Net tuition excludes state and institutional financial aid but does not exclude federal financial aid or loans. 

The student share has increased substantially over time due to volatility in education appropriations and net tuition revenue increases. In 1980 (the earliest available data), the student share was 20.9%. By 2001 (the start of the modern SHEF data collection and a pre-recession high point in education appropriations), the student share had already increased to 29.0%. In 2023, the U.S. average student share was 40.2%. This means that, on average, 40.2% of revenues at public institutions came from student tuition and fees. Excluding federal stimulus funding, the student share in 2023 was 40.5%.

1. State Comparisons

There is wide variation in the student share across states. From fiscal years 2017 to 2020, the student share was above 50% in at least half of all states (25 states in 2017 and 2020; 26 states in 2018 and 2019). Starting in 2021, the student share was greater than 50% in less than half of states. However, excluding federal stimulus funding, 25 states still had a student share higher than 50%. Both including and excluding federal stimulus, 21 states had a student share greater than 50% after Kentucky and Mississippi both decreased their student share from 52.9% in 2022 to 48.7% and 49.0%, respectively, in 2023 (Figure 4.3).

From 2022 to 2023, student share decreased in 35 states and increased in 15 states and Washington, D.C. Declines in student share ranged from 0.07 percentage points in Nevada to 12.7 percentage points in Alabama. Student share increases ranged from 0.002 percentage points in West Virginia to 5.8 percentage points in Missouri (Table 4.3)

The student share in 2023 is less than it was five years ago in all but four states (Indiana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Wyoming). In total, only three states had a lower student share in 2023 than in 2001 (3.7 percentage points less in Florida, 1.4 in Tennessee, and 2.7 in Wyoming) and two had a lower student share in 2023 than in 1980 (0.4 percentage points less in Florida and 2.7 less in New Mexico).

Table 4.3

Net Tuition as a Percentage of Total Education Revenue by State, FY 1980-2023

1980 2001 2013 2018 2022 2023 Change Since 2022 Change Since 2018 Change Since 2013 Change Since 2001 Change Since 1980
Alabama 26.7% 42.4% 67.4% 70.6% 65.2% 52.5% -12.7 -18.1 -14.9 10.1 25.8
Alaska 9.4% 18.2% 22.7% 23.8% 22.1% 20.3% -1.8 -3.4 -2.3 2.1 10.9
Arizona 21.3% 32.8% 55.0% 61.9% 60.6% 59.5% -1.1 -2.4 4.5 26.7 38.2
Arkansas 23.5% 25.4% 40.6% 49.5% 45.6% 47.7% 2.1 -1.8 7.1 22.3 24.2
California 7.5% 10.8% 30.1% 28.2% 20.0% 18.7% -1.3 -9.4 -11.4 7.9 11.2
Colorado 36.6% 41.6% 72.1% 70.6% 63.5% 64.7% 1.2 -5.8 -7.4 23.2 28.1
Connecticut 21.4% 25.4% 44.4% 54.0% 42.9% 37.9% -5.0 -16.1 -6.5 12.5 16.5
Delaware 37.9% 53.9% 73.5% 75.5% 71.5% 74.6% 3.0 -1.0 1.0 20.7 36.7
Florida 20.1% 23.4% 40.7% 27.9% 21.2% 19.7% -1.5 -8.2 -21.0 -3.7 -0.4
Georgia 18.2% 15.1% 38.8% 35.4% 28.2% 27.6% -0.5 -7.7 -11.2 12.5 9.4
Hawaii 8.5% 19.6% 33.6% 27.3% 25.2% 22.7% -2.6 -4.6 -10.9 3.1 14.1
Idaho 14.4% 23.5% 45.8% 44.6% 46.8% 42.3% -4.4 -2.3 -3.5 18.9 27.9
Illinois 16.4% 18.6% 32.8% 34.9% 29.6% 28.6% -0.9 -6.3 -4.2 10.0 12.2
Indiana 27.6% 41.4% 62.9% 62.0% 62.6% 62.9% 0.3 0.9 0.0 21.4 35.3
Iowa 24.5% 35.2% 59.9% 64.6% 61.5% 61.9% 0.4 -2.7 1.9 26.7 37.4
Kansas 23.2% 28.4% 48.9% 51.7% 45.2% 43.0% -2.3 -8.7 -6.0 14.5 19.8
Kentucky 20.6% 29.8% 54.2% 56.6% 52.9% 48.7% -4.2 -7.9 -5.5 18.9 28.1
Louisiana 18.5% 26.3% 43.8% 47.8% 44.3% 44.2% -0.2 -3.6 0.4 17.8 25.6
Maine 32.1% 37.2% 53.1% 47.9% 45.1% 39.3% -5.8 -8.6 -13.8 2.1 7.2
Maryland 26.4% 37.2% 52.3% 49.1% 45.9% 41.2% -4.7 -7.9 -11.1 4.1 14.8
Massachusetts 22.8% 29.0% 46.2% 44.1% 34.7% 32.0% -2.7 -12.1 -14.2 3.0 9.2
Michigan 29.7% 37.7% 67.3% 66.7% 60.8% 61.3% 0.5 -5.4 -5.9 23.6 31.7
Minnesota 18.4% 29.7% 61.7% 54.6% 51.7% 52.3% 0.5 -2.4 -9.4 22.6 33.8
Mississippi 25.8% 28.1% 48.2% 54.0% 52.9% 49.0% -4.0 -5.1 0.8 20.8 23.2
Missouri 22.0% 27.5% 50.2% 48.4% 41.9% 47.7% 5.8 -0.7 -2.5 20.2 25.7
Montana 20.8% 42.9% 55.6% 54.8% 52.1% 52.2% 0.1 -2.6 -3.4 9.3 31.4
Nebraska 22.3% 32.8% 42.1% 41.3% 37.0% 35.6% -1.4 -5.7 -6.5 2.8 13.3
Nevada 19.0% 22.4% 33.1% 32.7% 25.8% 25.8% -0.1 -7.0 -7.4 3.4 6.8
New Hampshire 54.3% 65.4% 84.9% 78.0% 71.9% 71.4% -0.5 -6.6 -13.5 6.0 17.1
New Jersey 19.9% 38.6% 53.3% 57.3% 46.8% 44.3% -2.5 -13.0 -9.0 5.7 24.4
New Mexico 16.1% 12.5% 22.1% 24.9% 23.2% 13.4% -9.8 -11.5 -8.7 0.9 -2.7
New York 19.6% 29.7% 35.7% 33.5% 31.2% 30.4% -0.9 -3.1 -5.4 0.7 10.7
North Carolina 16.5% 18.9% 31.0% 34.4% 30.2% 29.0% -1.2 -5.3 -2.0 10.1 12.6
North Dakota 22.6% 40.4% 49.6% 52.3% 53.5% 54.0% 0.4 1.7 4.4 13.6 31.4
Ohio 32.8% 40.9% 63.8% 60.8% 57.4% 57.6% 0.2 -3.2 -6.2 16.7 24.7
Oklahoma 19.8% 21.3% 41.7% 51.8% 54.2% 53.4% -0.8 1.6 11.7 32.1 33.6
Oregon 24.8% 35.9% 62.3% 60.2% 53.7% 53.6% -0.2 -6.6 -8.7 17.7 28.8
Pennsylvania 32.0% 48.7% 69.6% 70.7% 64.7% 60.6% -4.2 -10.1 -9.0 11.9 28.6
Rhode Island 23.4% 44.0% 63.5% 61.2% 60.5% 59.2% -1.4 -2.1 -4.4 15.1 35.8
South Carolina 19.4% 38.1% 66.1% 69.2% 62.5% 61.2% -1.3 -8.0 -4.9 23.1 41.8
South Dakota 27.4% 46.0% 60.4% 59.2% 57.9% 52.4% -5.5 -6.8 -8.0 6.4 24.9
Tennessee 22.5% 33.6% 48.1% 43.8% 37.6% 32.2% -5.4 -11.6 -15.9 -1.4 9.6
Texas 18.6% 34.0% 40.7% 47.9% 46.3% 43.6% -2.7 -4.3 2.9 9.6 25.0
Utah 19.9% 26.6% 48.3% 45.3% 42.4% 39.5% -2.9 -5.8 -8.8 12.8 19.5
Vermont 62.3% 76.8% 85.6% 87.9% 73.3% 77.1% 3.8 -10.8 -8.5 0.3 14.8
Virginia 24.1% 32.3% 60.9% 59.7% 52.2% 50.3% -1.9 -9.4 -10.6 18.1 26.3
Washington 20.3% 23.6% 49.9% 43.7% 38.6% 37.3% -1.3 -6.4 -12.6 13.8 17.0
West Virginia 19.0% 39.2% 54.9% 65.8% 56.2% 56.2% 0.0 -9.6 1.4 17.0 37.2
Wisconsin 26.3% 25.8% 44.0% 46.3% 44.0% 44.7% 0.7 -1.6 0.7 18.8 18.4
Wyoming 14.0% 21.6% 13.7% 17.5% 17.5% 18.9% 1.4 1.4 5.2 -2.7 4.9
D.C. N/A N/A 24.2% 27.8% 11.7% 13.7% 2.0 -14.0 -10.5 N/A N/A
U.S. 20.9% 29.0% 47.5% 47.2% 41.9% 40.2% -1.7 -7.0 -7.4 11.2 19.3
Notes:
  1. The student share is a measure of the proportion of total education revenue at public institutions coming from net tuition revenue. Net tuition revenue used for capital debt service is included in net tuition revenue but excluded from total education revenue in calculating the above figures. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. Year change columns show percentage point increases or decreases, not percent change.
  3. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. Data for the District of Columbia are not available prior to 2011.
  4. The years 1980 and 2001 are included in this table because they are the starting points of the historical SHEF dataset and modern SHEF data collection, respectively.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 student share includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky, estimated state public financial aid for Pennsylvania, and estimated net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  6. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations, a component of total education revenue, in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
  7. Texas developed a new methodology to capture state funding to institutions of higher education and updated FTE enrollment starting in 2017. Years prior to 2017 do not reflect this new methodology, which may affect some year-to-year comparisons.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Figure 4.3

Net Tuition as a Percentage of Total Education Revenue by State, FY 2023 (Adjusted)


Share
Notes:
  1. The student share is a measure of the proportion of total education revenue at public institutions coming from net tuition revenue. Net tuition revenue used for capital debt service is included in net tuition revenue, but excluded from total education revenue in calculating the above figures. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. Fiscal year 2023 student share includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky, estimated state public financial aid for Pennsylvania, and estimated net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

2. Sector Comparisons

The student share is perhaps the most varied SHEF metric when comparing two- and four-year public institutions. At two-year institutions, the fiscal year 2023 student share was less than a quarter (19.9%); it was over half (50.4%) at four-year institutions (Table 4.3A).

  • The student share at two-year institutions is generally between 15% and 50%. Tennessee (2.0%), California (4.3%), and New Mexico (9.0%) were the only states that reported student shares less than 10%. Only two states, Vermont (52.0%) and South Dakota (59.3%), had a two-year student share greater than 50%. 
  • At four-year institutions, student share ranged from 13.7% in Washington, D.C., and 14.0% in Florida to 81.2% in Delaware in 2023. The four-year student share was greater than 50% in 30 states, which is two fewer states than in 2022.

Figure 4.3A shows the difference between the student share at each state’s two- and four-year public institutions. On the figure’s left side, the light blue bars show states with a higher two-year student share. Most states have a higher four-year student share (the dark blue bars). On average, the four-year student share was 30.6 percentage points above the two-year student share. The four-year student share was greater than the two-year student share in all but three states: Florida, South Dakota, and Wyoming. This means that in those three states, students at two-year institutions were responsible for a greater portion of public institutional revenue than students attending four-year institutions. Arizona had the greatest difference in student share across institution types, where the four-year student share of 76.3% was 61.3 percentage points higher than the two-year student share of 15.0%.

Figure 4.3A

Difference in Two-Year and Four-Year Net Tuition as a Percentage of Total Education Revenue by State, FY 2023


Share
Notes:
  1. The student share is a measure of the proportion of total education revenue at public institutions coming from net tuition revenue. Net tuition revenue used for capital debt service is included in net tuition revenue, but excluded from total education revenue in calculating the above figures. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. Percentage point differences show the number of percentage points by which the student share is higher at either two- or four-year institutions, not the percent difference between the two.
  3. Alaska and the District of Columbia are excluded from this figure because they do not have any public two-year institutions.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2023 sector-level student share includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky, estimated two- and four-year public financial aid for Pennsylvania, estimated two- and four-year net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and estimated two-year net tuition and fee revenue for Massachusetts.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

State Spotlight : California

CA

California is the only state that has had a two-year student share (net tuition as a percentage of total education revenue) of less than 10% since the start of the SHEF sector-level dataset in 2019. Student tuition revenue comprised 6.2% of total education revenue in 2019 and decreased to 4.3% in 2023. National trends in the two-year student share are greatly impacted by California, which accounts for more than 20% of the nation’s two-year enrollment. Excluding California from the data increases the national two-year student share from 19.9% to 24.9%.

California’s low student share is due primarily to the state having among the lowest community college tuition charges in the nation and its practice of waiving tuition for low-income students through the California College Promise Grant, formerly named the Board of Governors Fee Waiver. Through the closely named College Promise Program, the state also waives tuition for certain community college students enrolled full time, regardless of financial need. In addition to waiving tuition for many community college students, the state has need-based programs, including the Cal Grant and Student Success Completion Grant programs, that provide aid for students’ living costs. In fiscal year 2023, California provided $652 million in nontuition aid for community college students. (For survey purposes, this nontuition aid is excluded from two-year financial aid, as it otherwise would be deducted from gross tuition revenue.)

 

Table 4.3A

Net Tuition as a Percentage of Total Education Revenue by Sector and State, FY 2019-2023

Two-Year Student Share Four-Year Student Share
2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average Change Since 2022 Change Since 2019 2019 2022 2023 Index to U.S. Average Change Since 2022 Change Since 2019
Alabama 44.9% 36.8% 22.1% 1.11 -14.7 -22.8 75.0% 72.3% 63.1% 1.25 -9.3 -11.9
Alaska N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 23.2% 22.2% 20.4% 0.40 -1.8 -2.8
Arizona 17.8% 14.3% 15.0% 0.76 0.7 -2.8 81.5% 79.8% 76.3% 1.51 -3.5 -5.1
Arkansas 37.5% 33.7% 33.4% 1.68 -0.3 -4.1 53.7% 50.6% 55.4% 1.10 4.8 1.7
California 6.2% 4.2% 4.3% 0.21 0.0 -2.0 43.5% 37.0% 34.2% 0.68 -2.8 -9.2
Colorado 41.7% 32.2% 32.2% 1.62 0.0 -9.5 77.1% 75.3% 73.8% 1.46 -1.5 -3.3
Connecticut 38.7% 27.8% 21.8% 1.10 -5.9 -16.9 58.4% 50.3% 46.2% 0.92 -4.1 -12.2
Delaware 39.0% 31.7% 31.5% 1.59 -0.2 -7.5 81.7% 77.7% 81.2% 1.61 3.5 -0.5
Florida 36.5% 31.6% 30.5% 1.54 -1.0 -6.0 18.3% 15.9% 14.0% 0.28 -1.9 -4.3
Georgia 30.9% 26.1% 25.6% 1.29 -0.5 -5.3 36.8% 30.1% 29.6% 0.59 -0.5 -7.2
Hawaii 19.2% 14.9% 13.9% 0.70 -1.0 -5.3 32.2% 34.0% 30.1% 0.60 -3.9 -2.1
Idaho 35.5% 33.2% 31.2% 1.57 -2.0 -4.3 49.0% 55.0% 52.9% 1.05 -2.1 3.9
Illinois 30.4% 26.2% 24.1% 1.21 -2.1 -6.3 36.4% 33.1% 31.5% 0.63 -1.6 -4.9
Indiana 38.3% 34.1% 35.3% 1.78 1.3 -3.0 65.8% 68.4% 68.9% 1.37 0.5 3.1
Iowa 54.9% 48.7% 49.0% 2.47 0.3 -5.9 68.1% 66.9% 67.3% 1.34 0.4 -0.7
Kansas 25.3% 22.2% 20.3% 1.02 -1.9 -5.1 63.0% 58.0% 54.9% 1.09 -3.2 -8.2
Kentucky 44.6% 40.9% 36.1% 1.82 -4.8 -8.5 60.4% 56.4% 53.6% 1.06 -2.8 -6.8
Louisiana 52.1% 49.2% 45.4% 2.29 -3.8 -6.7 49.0% 46.1% 48.6% 0.96 2.5 -0.4
Maine 28.4% 21.7% 11.7% 0.59 -10.0 -16.7 53.3% 50.8% 47.2% 0.94 -3.6 -6.1
Maryland 33.5% 27.5% 25.9% 1.30 -1.6 -7.6 55.2% 53.0% 47.1% 0.93 -5.9 -8.2
Massachusetts 32.2% 23.3% 18.9% 0.95 -4.3 -13.2 43.9% 38.2% 36.2% 0.72 -2.1 -7.7
Michigan 39.4% 30.7% 30.2% 1.52 -0.6 -9.3 74.3% 69.2% 71.6% 1.42 2.4 -2.7
Minnesota 43.4% 38.5% 38.8% 1.96 0.3 -4.5 61.1% 59.4% 59.3% 1.18 -0.1 -1.9
Mississippi 42.8% 40.5% 38.6% 1.95 -1.9 -4.1 61.6% 60.1% 54.9% 1.09 -5.3 -6.7
Missouri 30.4% 23.0% 25.7% 1.30 2.7 -4.6 55.5% 48.5% 55.8% 1.11 7.2 0.3
Montana 24.0% 20.2% 20.2% 1.02 0.0 -3.8 58.4% 56.1% 56.0% 1.11 -0.1 -2.4
Nebraska 20.3% 15.8% 16.3% 0.82 0.4 -4.0 49.5% 45.7% 44.7% 0.89 -1.0 -4.8
Nevada 22.7% 21.3% 19.7% 0.99 -1.6 -3.0 25.8% 28.5% 29.4% 0.58 0.9 3.6
New Hampshire 52.8% 42.1% 40.9% 2.06 -1.2 -11.9 83.9% 79.6% 79.4% 1.57 -0.2 -4.5
New Jersey 41.2% 37.4% 33.6% 1.69 -3.7 -7.6 56.5% 52.3% 49.8% 0.99 -2.5 -6.7
New Mexico 15.8% 11.1% 9.0% 0.45 -2.1 -6.8 20.6% 29.9% 16.5% 0.33 -13.5 -4.1
New York 31.9% 30.3% 30.2% 1.52 -0.1 -1.7 33.8% 31.9% 30.7% 0.61 -1.2 -3.1
North Carolina 18.8% 15.7% 15.5% 0.78 -0.3 -3.3 39.5% 36.9% 35.0% 0.69 -1.9 -4.5
North Dakota 34.2% 31.5% 31.3% 1.58 -0.2 -2.8 58.2% 59.7% 60.1% 1.19 0.4 1.9
Ohio 33.5% 31.2% 29.8% 1.50 -1.4 -3.7 65.4% 64.2% 64.3% 1.28 0.2 -1.1
Oklahoma 40.6% 36.1% 31.1% 1.57 -5.0 -9.6 59.3% 61.5% 61.4% 1.22 -0.1 2.1
Oregon 30.5% 22.5% 20.1% 1.01 -2.4 -10.4 71.7% 68.1% 68.2% 1.35 0.2 -3.5
Pennsylvania 45.3% 37.5% 35.8% 1.80 -1.7 -9.5 73.7% 71.0% 66.2% 1.31 -4.8 -7.6
Rhode Island 47.6% 42.3% 43.4% 2.19 1.1 -4.2 64.3% 65.4% 63.7% 1.26 -1.8 -0.6
South Carolina 34.3% 32.3% 27.2% 1.37 -5.1 -7.1 77.5% 71.5% 70.4% 1.40 -1.2 -7.1
South Dakota 42.5% 63.7% 59.3% 2.99 -4.4 16.8 64.8% 61.3% 58.4% 1.16 -2.9 -6.4
Tennessee 17.3% 6.5% 2.0% 0.10 -4.5 -15.4 51.3% 48.6% 45.1% 0.89 -3.5 -6.2
Texas 24.7% 22.0% 17.8% 0.90 -4.1 -6.9 64.4% 65.0% 64.2% 1.27 -0.8 -0.1
Utah 24.2% 24.0% 19.8% 1.00 -4.2 -4.4 48.1% 46.8% 44.0% 0.87 -2.8 -4.1
Vermont 69.4% 43.0% 52.0% 2.62 9.1 -17.4 89.4% 79.6% 80.8% 1.60 1.1 -8.7
Virginia 45.1% 34.1% 30.6% 1.54 -3.5 -14.5 64.6% 59.4% 56.5% 1.12 -2.8 -8.1
Washington 27.1% 20.1% 15.8% 0.80 -4.3 -11.3 51.4% 49.7% 50.4% 1.00 0.7 -1.0
West Virginia 37.3% 28.2% 27.6% 1.39 -0.5 -9.7 68.2% 64.3% 64.0% 1.27 -0.3 -4.2
Wisconsin 19.8% 15.1% 14.5% 0.73 -0.6 -5.2 62.1% 59.6% 60.7% 1.20 1.1 -1.4
Wyoming 13.6% 18.5% 21.0% 1.06 2.5 7.3 20.2% 16.9% 17.7% 0.35 0.8 -2.5
D.C. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 24.6% 11.8% 13.7% 0.27 1.9 -10.8
U.S. 25.9% 21.2% 19.9% 1.00 -1.4 -6.1 55.1% 52.1% 50.4% 1.00 -1.7 -4.6
Notes:
  1. The student share is a measure of the proportion of total education revenue at public institutions coming from net tuition revenue. Net tuition revenue used for capital debt service is included in net tuition revenue but excluded from total education revenue in calculating the above figures. Total education revenue includes federal stimulus funding.
  2. Year change columns show percentage point increases or decreases, not percent change.
  3. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  4. The year 2019 is included in this table because it is the starting point of the sector-level SHEF dataset.
  5. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.acenet.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  6. Fiscal year 2023 student share includes estimated federal stimulus for Kentucky, estimated two- and four-year public financial aid for Pennsylvania, estimated two- and four-year net tuition and fee revenue for Arkansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and estimated two-year net tuition and fee revenue for Massachusetts.
  7. Each year, approximately one-third of education appropriations, a component of total education revenue, in Illinois go toward the state’s retirement pension system. See the Illinois State Spotlight for more details.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association