Data Download

Download the complete dataset for all available years of data on PBF to public institutions. Please update any previously saved PBF data using this file, as prior years include revisions that are not captured in the historical PBF tables. For most states, data elements are not available prior to 2020. Please contact Kelsey Kunkle at kkunkle@sheeo.org with questions about the data or for additional variables.

Performance-Based Funding Report

Performance-based funding (PBF) has played an increasingly prevalent role in state higher education funding policy over the past 40 years, 1 1Gándara, D., & Rutherford, A. (2018) Mitigating unintended impacts? The effects of premiums for underserved populations in performance-funding policies for higher education. Research in Higher Education, 59, 681-703. doi.org/10.1007/s11162-017-9483-x  VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES and by 2020, 31 states had funded PBF models. The amount of performance-based funds that states provide to public institutions, as well as the portion of state appropriations that are distributed based on performance measures, varies widely across states, systems, and institution types. 2 2Hearn, J. C. (2015, November). Outcomes-based funding in historical and comparative context. Lumina Foundation. https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/hearn-obf-full.pdf VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES 3 3Hillman, N., & Corral, D. (2017). The equity implications of paying for performance in higher education. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(14), 1757–1772. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764217744834 VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES This variation in public institutions’ reliance on PBF for their operating budgets across states likely contributes to mixed evidence connecting PBF to student outcomes. 4 4Boland, W. C. (2018). Performance funding and historically black colleges and universities: An assessment of financial incentives and baccalaureate degree production. Educational Policy. doi/pdf/10.1177/0895904818802118; Hillman, N. W., Tandberg, D. A., & Fryar, A. H. (2015). Evaluating the impacts of ‘‘new’’ performance funding in higher education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(4), 501–519.; Hu, X. (2019). Efficiency for whom? Varying impact of performance-based funding on community colleges in Louisiana. Community College Review, 47(4), 323–359.; Ortagus, J. C., Kelchen, R., Rosinger, K., & Voorhees, N. (2020). Performance-based funding in American higher education: A systematic synthesis of the intended and unintended consequences. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(4), 520–550. doi.org/10.3102/0162373720953128; Rutherford, A., & Rabovsky, T. (2014). Evaluating impacts of performance funding policies on student outcomes in higher education. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 655(1), 185–208. doi.org/10.1177/0002716214541048; Tandberg, D. A., & Hillman, N. W. (2014). State higher education performance funding: Data, outcomes, and policy implications. Journal of Education Finance, 39(3), 222–243. VIEW ALL FOOTNOTES This issue brief highlights the PBF data that SHEEO is now collecting annually and provides an initial snapshot of the first two years of data.

Table 1

Performance-Based Funding by Sector and State, FY 2020-2022 (Unadjusted Dollars, in Millions)

Two-Year Four-Year All Public Institutions
2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021
Alabama $32 $33 $35 7.4% $0 $0 $0 N/A $32 $33 $35 7.4%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Arizona $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Arkansas $2 $2 $3 31.4% $5 $6 $8 33.6% $7 $8 $11 33.0%
California $354 $376 $428 13.6% $0 $0 $0 N/A $354 $376 $428 13.6%
Colorado $0 $199 $226 13.4% $0 $501 $559 11.6% $0 $700 $785 12.1%
Connecticut $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Delaware $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Florida $44 $44 $39 -11.4% $265 $265 $265 0.0% $309 $309 $304 -1.6%
Georgia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Hawaii $1 $1 $1 -0.1% $1 $1 $1 -35.9% $3 $2 $2 -22.1%
Idaho $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Illinois $0 $0 $0 0.0% $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 0.0%
Indiana $17 $17 $0 -100.0% $69 $70 $0 -100.0% $86 $87 $0 -100.0%
Iowa $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Kansas $9 $4 $9 128.9% $40 $1 $29 2618.6% $49 $5 $38 679.6%
Kentucky $149 $150 $153 2.3% $518 $517 $530 2.5% $668 $667 $683 2.5%
Louisiana $120 $0 $125 N/A $365 $0 $367 N/A $485 $0 $492 N/A
Maine $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Maryland $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Massachusetts $3 $6 $6 6.6% $3 $5 $6 6.7% $5 $11 $12 6.6%
Michigan $2 $0 $0 N/A $8 $0 $0 N/A $10 $0 $0 N/A
Minnesota $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Mississippi $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Missouri $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Montana $2 $2 $2 -20.5% $11 $12 $11 -4.2% $14 $14 $13 -7.0%
Nebraska $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Nevada $33 $33 $36 9.1% $66 $67 $58 -13.6% $100 $100 $94 -6.0%
New Hampshire $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
New Jersey $0 $0 $0 N/A $35 $35 $80 127.4% $35 $35 $80 127.4%
New Mexico $17 $4 $0 -100.0% $41 $11 $0 -100.0% $58 $15 $0 -100.0%
New York $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
North Carolina $24 $24 $24 0.0% $0 $0 $0 N/A $24 $24 $24 0.0%
North Dakota $49 $49 $51 4.6% $189 $189 $197 4.0% $238 $238 $248 4.1%
Ohio $448 $469 $473 0.9% $1,377 $1,444 $1,457 0.9% $1,825 $1,913 $1,930 0.9%
Oklahoma $6 $0 $5 N/A $12 $0 $11 N/A $18 $0 $16 N/A
Oregon $0 $0 $0 N/A $204 $213 $221 3.4% $204 $213 $221 3.4%
Pennsylvania $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Rhode Island $2 $3 $0 -100.0% $5 $5 $0 -100.0% $7 $8 $0 -100.0%
South Carolina $7 $7 $7 -0.5% $0 $0 $0 N/A $7 $7 $7 -0.5%
South Dakota $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Tennessee $289 $295 $309 5.0% $790 $792 $818 3.3% $1,079 $1,087 $1,127 3.7%
Texas $180 $180 $227 26.1% $236 $236 $466 97.4% $416 $416 $693 66.5%
Utah $5 $0 $3 N/A $27 $0 $18 N/A $32 $0 $21 N/A
Vermont $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Virginia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Washington $42 $46 $52 12.2% $0 $0 $0 N/A $42 $46 $52 12.2%
West Virginia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Wisconsin $27 $30 $31 2.2% $0 $0 $0 N/A $27 $30 $31 2.2%
Wyoming $16 $15 $16 3.6% $0 $0 $0 N/A $16 $15 $16 3.6%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
U.S. $1,880 $1,991 $2,262 13.6% $4,270 $4,373 $5,102 16.7% $6,149 $6,364 $7,365 15.7%
Notes:
  1. Full-time equivalent enrollment converts student credit hours to full-time, academic year students, but excludes medical students.
  2. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia. There are no two-year public institutions in Alaska or the District of Columbia.
  3. Sector-level data are recently required components of the SHEF data collection and are not currently available for years prior to 2019.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Fiscal year 2021 two-year FTE is a projected amount for Illinois.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

PBF per FTE

Map 1

PBF per FTE, FY 2022

For comparisons across states and sectors, it is important to contextualize performance-based funding amounts with net FTE enrollment.

Map 1 can be used to visualize the PBF per FTE in each state. By using the full map, users can customize between statewide and the two- and four-year sectors, apply different state and inflation adjustments, and access a variety of download options.

Table 2 provides adjusted state-level data, including sector breakouts and one-year percent change. The table is sortable by clicking on each column header that can show the range of PBF per FTE. See the footnotes at the bottom of the table for more detailed information.

Table 2

Performance-Based Funding per FTE Sector and State, FY 2020-2022 (Constant Adjusted Dollars)

Two-Year Four-Year All Public Institutions
2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 % Change Since 2021
Alabama $729 $760 $762 0.2% $0 $0 $0 N/A $197 $202 $210 4.1%
Alaska $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Arizona $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Arkansas $80 $98 $127 29.3% $87 $100 $124 24.4% $85 $99 $125 25.7%
California $325 $342 $371 8.4% $0 $0 $0 N/A $187 $195 $212 8.9%
Colorado $0 $3,551 $3,924 10.5% $0 $4,091 $4,447 8.7% $0 $3,921 $4,283 9.2%
Connecticut $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Delaware $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Florida $160 $166 $152 -8.8% $1,011 $963 $936 -2.8% $575 $573 $563 -1.7%
Georgia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Hawaii $55 $43 $47 7.4% $55 $46 $28 -39.1% $55 $45 $35 -22.4%
Idaho $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Illinois $3 $3 $3 -4.3% $0 $0 $0 N/A $1 $1 $1 -4.2%
Indiana $320 $338 $0 -100.0% $457 $461 $0 -100.0% $422 $430 $0 -100.0%
Iowa $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Kansas $195 $92 $205 123.2% $597 $16 $431 2558.2% $438 $45 $345 661.5%
Kentucky $4,272 $4,465 $4,509 1.0% $6,659 $6,469 $6,471 0.0% $5,919 $5,878 $5,897 0.3%
Louisiana $3,241 $0 $3,644 N/A $3,553 $0 $3,327 N/A $3,470 $0 $3,402 N/A
Maine $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Maryland $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Massachusetts $53 $118 $131 10.6% $21 $44 $47 5.5% $30 $65 $70 6.9%
Michigan $25 $0 $3 N/A $40 $0 $0 N/A $35 $0 $1 N/A
Minnesota $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Mississippi $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Missouri $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Montana $429 $451 $342 -24.0% $423 $469 $424 -9.6% $424 $466 $409 -12.1%
Nebraska $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Nevada $1,139 $1,189 $1,282 7.8% $1,406 $1,384 $1,157 -16.4% $1,304 $1,312 $1,202 -8.4%
New Hampshire $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
New Jersey $0 $0 $0 N/A $201 $198 $450 127.4% $126 $129 $295 128.8%
New Mexico $592 $173 $0 -100.0% $1,290 $316 $0 -100.0% $956 $254 $0 -100.0%
New York $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
North Carolina $155 $161 $156 -3.4% $0 $0 $0 N/A $72 $72 $69 -4.5%
North Dakota $7,816 $7,851 $7,775 -1.0% $7,766 $7,723 $7,676 -0.6% $7,776 $7,749 $7,696 -0.7%
Ohio $5,345 $5,138 $4,866 -5.3% $6,074 $6,603 $6,514 -1.4% $5,877 $6,172 $6,014 -2.6%
Oklahoma $189 $0 $157 N/A $171 $0 $154 N/A $176 $0 $155 N/A
Oregon $0 $0 $0 N/A $2,409 $2,520 $2,520 0.0% $1,429 $1,543 $1,585 2.7%
Pennsylvania $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Rhode Island $231 $319 $0 -100.0% $192 $203 $0 -100.0% $204 $235 $0 -100.0%
South Carolina $138 $148 $137 -7.7% $0 $0 $0 N/A $47 $48 $45 -6.4%
South Dakota $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Tennessee $4,931 $5,393 $5,716 6.0% $8,765 $8,527 $8,492 -0.4% $7,256 $7,366 $7,494 1.7%
Texas $442 $469 $587 25.1% $479 $456 $874 91.7% $463 $462 $753 63.1%
Utah $203 $0 $119 N/A $292 $0 $175 N/A $274 $0 $164 N/A
Vermont $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Virginia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Washington $361 $438 $455 3.9% $0 $0 $0 N/A $185 $210 $232 10.3%
West Virginia $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
Wisconsin $473 $579 $560 -3.3% $0 $0 $0 N/A $147 $170 $168 -1.0%
Wyoming $1,554 $1,478 $1,400 -5.2% $0 $0 $0 N/A $785 $762 $750 -1.6%
D.C. $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A
U.S. $472 $522 $584 11.7% $696 $700 $794 13.4% $608 $633 $715 13.0%
Notes:
  1. Performance-based funding represents the state tax dollars allocated to two- and four-year public institutions based on how well institutions accomplish goals or outcomes defined by state or system programs.
  2. Performance-based funding data are recently required components of the SHEF data collection and are not currently available for years prior to 2020.
  3. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  4. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  5. In Kansas, calculated performance-based funding varies widely from year to year depending on state appropriations and potential increases in state funding made available to institutions.
  6. The following states did not utilize their performance-based funding formulas due to budget reductions: Colorado in fiscal year 2020; Louisiana, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Utah in fiscal year 2021; and Indiana, New Mexico, and Rhode Island in fiscal year 2022.
  7. Connecticut has a system-level performance-based funding model that is not reported in this table.
  8. Adjustment factors to arrive at constant dollar figures include Cost of Living Index (COLI) and Higher Education Cost Adjustment (HECA). The COLI is not a measure of inflation over time. The Enrollment Mix Index (EMI) is not applied to sector-level data and is not used in this table.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association
Figure 1

PBF as a Percentage of Public Operating Two-Year Institutions by State, FY 2022


Notes:
  1. Performance-based funding represents the state tax dollars allocated to two- and four-year public institutions based on how well institutions accomplish goals or outcomes defined by state or system programs.
  2. State public operating appropriations are a measure of state support directly allocated to public two- and four-year institutions. State public operating excludes local appropriations, agency funding, and student financial aid.
  3. Performance-based funding may equal more than 100% of state public operating appropriations in states that allocate non-operating appropriations such as RAM or non-credit appropriations through a performance-based funding formula.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Less than one percent, 0.04%, of Illinois' two-year public operating budget is allocated through PBF.
  6. Indiana, New Mexico, and Rhode Island did not utilize their performance-based funding formulas in fiscal year 2022 due to budget reductions.
  7. Connecticut has a system-level performance-based funding model that is not reported in this figure.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association

Table 3 provides state-level PBF as a percentage of total public operating data, broken out by sector, and one-year percentage point change. See the footnotes at the bottom of the table for more detailed information.

Table 3

Performance-Based Funding as a Percentage of Total Public Operating by Sector and State, FY 2020-2022

Two-Year Four-Year All Public Institutions
2020 2021 2022 Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 Change Since 2021 2020 2021 2022 Change Since 2021
Alabama 8.1% 8.2% 7.4% -0.8 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 2.5% 2.6% 2.4% -0.2
Alaska N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Arizona 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Arkansas 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 0.3 1.2% 1.4% 1.6% 0.2 1.2% 1.4% 1.6% 0.3
California 5.4% 4.8% 4.9% 0.1 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 0.0
Colorado 0.0% 185.4% 86.8% -98.6 0.0% 245.0% 104.0% -141.0 0.0% 224.4% 98.4% -126.0
Connecticut 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Delaware 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Florida 3.5% 3.4% 2.9% -0.5 9.9% 9.7% 9.2% -0.5 7.9% 7.7% 7.2% -0.5
Georgia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Hawaii 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.0 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% -0.1 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% -0.1
Idaho 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Illinois 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Indiana 5.7% 6.2% 0.0% -6.2 7.8% 8.5% 0.0% -8.5 7.3% 7.9% 0.0% -7.9
Iowa 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Kansas 4.9% 2.2% 4.6% 2.4 9.5% 0.3% 6.7% 6.4 8.2% 0.8% 6.1% 5.2
Kentucky 86.9% 89.1% 84.3% -4.8 96.5% 96.8% 84.7% -12.2 94.2% 95.0% 84.6% -10.4
Louisiana 92.2% 0.0% 87.6% 87.6 91.2% 0.0% 79.2% 79.2 91.5% 0.0% 81.2% 81.2
Maine 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Maryland 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Massachusetts 0.7% 1.4% 1.4% 0.0 0.2% 0.5% 0.5% 0.0 0.4% 0.7% 0.7% 0.0
Michigan 0.6% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Minnesota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Mississippi 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Missouri 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Montana 8.8% 9.0% 7.0% -2.0 5.9% 6.2% 5.9% -0.3 6.3% 6.6% 6.1% -0.5
Nebraska 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Nevada 20.1% 25.1% 21.6% -3.5 17.6% 21.5% 16.6% -4.9 18.4% 22.6% 18.2% -4.3
New Hampshire 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
New Jersey 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 2.9% 3.4% 5.8% 2.4 2.5% 3.0% 5.1% 2.1
New Mexico 8.4% 2.3% 0.0% -2.3 7.5% 2.0% 0.0% -2.0 7.7% 2.0% 0.0% -2.0
New York 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
North Carolina 2.3% 2.4% 2.1% -0.3 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% -0.1
North Dakota 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0
Ohio 99.7% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0 97.8% 98.0% 97.7% -0.3 98.2% 98.5% 98.2% -0.2
Oklahoma 3.8% 0.0% 3.2% 3.2 2.7% 0.0% 2.4% 2.4 3.0% 0.0% 2.6% 2.6
Oregon 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 49.2% 46.5% 45.1% -1.5 29.7% 28.8% 27.7% -1.2
Pennsylvania 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Rhode Island 5.3% 5.8% 0.0% -5.8 3.8% 4.0% 0.0% -4.0 4.2% 4.5% 0.0% -4.5
South Carolina 3.7% 3.9% 3.9% 0.1 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 1.2% 1.2% 1.1% -0.1
South Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Tennessee 73.6% 61.8% 92.4% 30.7 97.4% 96.3% 92.6% -3.7 89.6% 83.6% 92.6% 8.9
Texas 17.6% 17.7% 21.9% 4.3 6.7% 6.7% 12.6% 5.8 9.2% 9.2% 14.6% 5.4
Utah 1.9% 0.0% 1.1% 1.1 3.2% 0.0% 2.0% 2.0 2.9% 0.0% 1.8% 1.8
Vermont 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Washington 5.0% 5.0% 5.6% 0.6 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 2.5% 2.5% 2.9% 0.3
West Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
Wisconsin 5.2% 6.0% 5.7% -0.3 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% -0.1
Wyoming 12.4% 13.0% 14.2% 1.2 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 5.1% 5.0% 5.9% 0.9
D.C. N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0
U.S. 8.9% 8.8% 9.3% 0.4 8.8% 9.1% 9.7% 0.6 8.8% 9.0% 9.6% 0.5
Notes:
  1. Performance-based funding represents the state tax dollars allocated to two- and four-year public institutions based on how well institutions accomplish goals or outcomes defined by state or system programs.
  2. Total public operating for all public institutions is the sum of two- and four-year public operating. These state-level totals differ from state-level general public operating totals, as they do not include any agency funding.
  3. Performance-based funding data are recently required components of the SHEF data collection and are not currently available for years prior to 2020.
  4. Sector is determined at the institution level using the Carnegie Basic Classification (https://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/). Baccalaureate/Associate's Colleges and "less-than-two-year" degree-granting institutions not assigned a Carnegie classification are considered two-year institutions.
  5. Year change columns show percentage point increases or decreases, not percent change.
  6. The U.S. calculation does not include the District of Columbia.
  7. Performance-based funding may equal more than 100% of state public operating appropriations in states that allocate non-operating appropriations such as RAM or non-credit appropriations through a performance-based funding formula.
  8. In Kansas, calculated performance-based funding varies widely from year to year depending on state appropriations and potential increases in state funding made available to institutions.
  9. The following states did not utilize their performance-based funding formulas due to budget reductions: Colorado in fiscal year 2020; Louisiana, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Utah in fiscal year 2021; and Indiana, New Mexico, and Rhode Island in fiscal year 2022.
  10. Connecticut has a system-level performance-based funding model that is not reported in this table.
Source(s):
  • State Higher Education Executive Officers Association